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Open AccessArticle

Numerical Modeling for Simulation of Compaction of Refractory Materials for Secondary Steelmaking

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, 26004 Logroño, Spain
2
Department of Industrial Engineering, Business Administration and Statistics, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010224
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 1 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 4 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Materials Modeling, Analysis and Applications)
The purpose of this work is to simulate the powder compaction of refractory materials, using the discrete element method (DEM). The capability of two cohesive contact models, implemented in different DEM packages, to simulate the compaction of a mixture of two refractory materials (dead burnt magnesia (MgO) and calcined alumina (Al2O3)) was analyzed, and the simulation results were compared with experimental data. The maximum force applied by the punch and the porosity and final shape quality of the compact were examined. As a starting point, the influence of Young’s modulus (E), the cohesion energy density (CED), and the diameter of the Al2O3 particles (D) on the results was analyzed. This analysis allowed to distinguish that E and CED were the most influential factors. Therefore, a more extensive examination of these two factors was performed afterward, using a fixed value of D. The analysis of the combined effect of these factors made it possible to calibrate the DEM models, and consequently, after this calibration, the compacts had an adequate final shape quality and the maximum force applied in the simulations matched with the experimental one. However, the porosity of the simulated compacts was higher than that of the real ones. To reduce the porosity of the compacts, lower values of D were also modeled. Consequently, the relative deviation of the porosity was reduced from 40–50% to 20%, using a value of D equal to 0.15 mm. View Full-Text
Keywords: powder compaction; refractory materials; discrete element method (DEM); experiments; cohesive contact models powder compaction; refractory materials; discrete element method (DEM); experiments; cohesive contact models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramírez-Aragón, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Alba-Elías, F.; González-Marcos, A. Numerical Modeling for Simulation of Compaction of Refractory Materials for Secondary Steelmaking. Materials 2020, 13, 224.

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