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Open AccessArticle

Highly Porous Polymer-Derived Bioceramics Based on a Complex Hardystonite Solid Solution

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Ceramics Department, National Research Centre, 12622 Cairo, Egypt
3
Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering (ICEA) and Inter-Departmental Research Center for the Study of Cement Materials and Hydraulic Binders (CIRCe), University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
4
Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
5
Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233970
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Additive Manufacturing of Bioceramics)
Highly porous bioceramics, based on a complex hardystonite solid solution, were developed from silicone resins and micro-sized oxide fillers fired in air at 950 °C. Besides CaO, SrO, MgO, and ZnO precursors, and the commercial embedded silicone resins, calcium borate was essential in providing the liquid phase upon firing and favouring the formation of an unprecedented hardystonite solid solution, corresponding to the formula (Ca0.70Sr0.30)2(Zn0.72Mg0.15Si0.13) (Si0.85B0.15)2O7. Silicone-filler mixtures could be used in the form of thick pastes for direct ink writing of reticulated scaffolds or for direct foaming. The latter shaping option benefited from the use of hydrated calcium borate, which underwent dehydration, with water vapour release, at a low temperature (420 °C). Both scaffolds and foams confirmed the already-obtained phase assemblage, after firing, and exhibited remarkable strength-to-density ratios. Finally, preliminary cell tests excluded any cytotoxicity that could be derived from the formation of a boro-silicate glassy phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymer derived ceramics (PDCs); biosilicate ceramics; hardystonite; foams; 3D printed scaffolds; direct ink writing (DIW) polymer derived ceramics (PDCs); biosilicate ceramics; hardystonite; foams; 3D printed scaffolds; direct ink writing (DIW)
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Elsayed, H.; Secco, M.; Zorzi, F.; Schuhladen, K.; Detsch, R.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Bernardo, E. Highly Porous Polymer-Derived Bioceramics Based on a Complex Hardystonite Solid Solution. Materials 2019, 12, 3970.

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