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Open AccessArticle

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Effects on Metallic Brackets and Wires: Does It Alter the Temperature and Bonding Efficacy of Orthodontic Devices?

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Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry—Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy; CNAO Foundation Diagnostic Imaging Unit, National Center of Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Section of Radiology—Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology—Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Section of Statistics—Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233971
Received: 19 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthodontic Materials and Adhesive Interfaces)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used diagnostic technique. Patients wearing orthodontic appliances are often requested to remove their appliances, even when the MRI exam involves anatomical areas far from mouth, in order to avoid heating of the metal and detachment of the appliance. The purpose of the present investigation was to measure and compare temperature changes and orthodontic appliances’ adhesion to enamel after different MRIs. A total of 220 orthodontic brackets were bonded on bovine incisors and wires with different materials (stainless steel and nickel titanium). Moreover, various sizes (0.014″ and 0.019″ × 0.025″) were engaged. Appliances were submitted to MRI at two different powers (1.5 T and 3 T). The temperatures of brackets and wires were measured before and after MRI. Subsequently, the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. After MRI, a significant increase in the temperature was found for both the brackets and wires in some groups, even if the mean temperature increase was clinically insignificant, as the temperature ranged between 0.05 °C and 2.4 °C for brackets and between 0.42 °C and 1.74 °C for wires. The MRI did not condition bracket adhesion in any group. No differences were reported when comparing the 1.5 T with 3 T groups. The ARI Scores were also significantly lower after MRI. The results of the present report show that, under MRI, orthodontic appliances present a low temperature rise and no debonding risk. Therefore, the removal of orthodontic appliance is not recommended routinely, but is suggested only in the case of a void risk or potential interference in image quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: dentistry; orthodontics; nuclear; magnetic; resonance; shear; bond; strength; temperature; adhesion; bracket; wire dentistry; orthodontics; nuclear; magnetic; resonance; shear; bond; strength; temperature; adhesion; bracket; wire
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Sfondrini, M.F.; Preda, L.; Calliada, F.; Carbone, L.; Lungarotti, L.; Bernardinelli, L.; Gandini, P.; Scribante, A. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Effects on Metallic Brackets and Wires: Does It Alter the Temperature and Bonding Efficacy of Orthodontic Devices? Materials 2019, 12, 3971.

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