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Article

In Situ Recrystallization of Co-Evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films by Copper Chloride Vapor Treatment towards Solar Cell Applications

1
Virginia Institute of Photovoltaics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
2
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
3
Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, 44322 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan A. López-Villanueva
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3938; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133938
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 25 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Devices for Energy Generation and Storage)
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (or CIGS) thin films and devices were fabricated using a modified three-stage process. Using high deposition rates and a low temperature during the process, a copper chloride vapor treatment was introduced in between the second and third stages to enhance the films properties. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy demonstrate that drastic changes occur after this recrystallization process, yielding films with much larger grains. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows that the depth profile of many elements is not modified (such as Cu, In and Se) while others change dramatically (such as Ga and Na). Because of the competing effects of these changes, not all parameters of the solar cells are enhanced, yielding an increase of 15% in the device efficiency at the most. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper indium gallium selenide; metal halide; recrystallization; solar cell copper indium gallium selenide; metal halide; recrystallization; solar cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poudel, D.; Belfore, B.; Ashrafee, T.; Palmiotti, E.; Karki, S.; Rajan, G.; Lepetit, T.; Rockett, A.; Marsillac, S. In Situ Recrystallization of Co-Evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films by Copper Chloride Vapor Treatment towards Solar Cell Applications. Energies 2021, 14, 3938. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133938

AMA Style

Poudel D, Belfore B, Ashrafee T, Palmiotti E, Karki S, Rajan G, Lepetit T, Rockett A, Marsillac S. In Situ Recrystallization of Co-Evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films by Copper Chloride Vapor Treatment towards Solar Cell Applications. Energies. 2021; 14(13):3938. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133938

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poudel, Deewakar, Benjamin Belfore, Tasnuva Ashrafee, Elizabeth Palmiotti, Shankar Karki, Grace Rajan, Thomas Lepetit, Angus Rockett, and Sylvain Marsillac. 2021. "In Situ Recrystallization of Co-Evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films by Copper Chloride Vapor Treatment towards Solar Cell Applications" Energies 14, no. 13: 3938. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133938

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