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Open AccessArticle

Experimental Studies of Immiscible High-Nitrogen Natural Gas WAG Injection Efficiency in Mixed-Wet Carbonate Reservoir

Oil and Gas Institute–National Research Institute, 31-503 Cracow, Poland
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Energies 2020, 13(9), 2346; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092346
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 28 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhanced Oil Recovery 2020)
Crucial oil reservoirs are located in naturally fractured carbonate formations and are currently reaching a mature phase of production. Hence, a cost-effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method is needed to achieve a satisfactory recovery factor. The paper focuses on an experimental investigation of the efficiency of water alternating sour and high-nitrogen (~85% N2) natural gas injection (WAG) in mixed-wetted carbonates that are crucial reservoir rocks for Polish oil fields. The foam-assisted water alternating gas method (FAWAG) was also tested. Both were compared with continuous water injection (CWI) and continuous gas injection (CGI). A series of coreflooding experiments were conducted within reservoir conditions (T = 126 ℃, P = 270 bar) on composite cores, and each consisted of four reservoir dolomite core plugs and was saturated with the original reservoir fluids. In turn, some of the experiments were conducted on artificially fractured cores to evaluate the impact of fractures on recovery efficiency. The performance evaluation of the tested methods was carried out by comparing oil recoveries from non-fractured composite cores, as well as fractured. In the case of non-fractured cores, the WAG injection outperformed continuous gas injection (CGI) and continuous water injection (CWI). As expected, the presence of fractures significantly reduced performance of WAG, CGI and CWI injection modes. In contrast, with regard to FAWAG, deployment of foam flow in the presence of fractures remarkably enhanced oil recovery, which confirms the possibility of using the FAWAG method in situations of premature gas breakthrough. The positive results encourage us to continue the research of the potential uses of this high-nitrogen natural gas in EOR, especially in the view of the utilization of gas reservoirs with advantageous location, high reserves and reservoir energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery; high-nitrogen natural gas; WAG; FAWAG; mixed-wet fractured carbonates; immiscible gas injection enhanced oil recovery; high-nitrogen natural gas; WAG; FAWAG; mixed-wet fractured carbonates; immiscible gas injection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wojnicki, M.; Lubaś, J.; Warnecki, M.; Kuśnierczyk, J.; Szuflita, S. Experimental Studies of Immiscible High-Nitrogen Natural Gas WAG Injection Efficiency in Mixed-Wet Carbonate Reservoir. Energies 2020, 13, 2346. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092346

AMA Style

Wojnicki M, Lubaś J, Warnecki M, Kuśnierczyk J, Szuflita S. Experimental Studies of Immiscible High-Nitrogen Natural Gas WAG Injection Efficiency in Mixed-Wet Carbonate Reservoir. Energies. 2020; 13(9):2346. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092346

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wojnicki, Mirosław; Lubaś, Jan; Warnecki, Marcin; Kuśnierczyk, Jerzy; Szuflita, Sławomir. 2020. "Experimental Studies of Immiscible High-Nitrogen Natural Gas WAG Injection Efficiency in Mixed-Wet Carbonate Reservoir" Energies 13, no. 9: 2346. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092346

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