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Article

Receding Horizon Control of Cooling Systems for Large-Size Uninterruptible Power Supply Based on a Metal-Air Battery System

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dankook University, Gyeonggi-do 16890, Korea
5
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071611
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 28 March 2020 / Accepted: 29 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
As application of electric energy have expanded, the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) concept has attracted considerable attention, and new UPS technologies have been developed. Despite the extensive research on the batteries for UPS, conventional batteries are still being used in large-scale UPS systems. However, lead-acid batteries, which are currently widely adopted in UPS, require frequent maintenance and are relatively expensive as compared with some other kinds of batteries, like metal-air batteries. In previous work, we designed a novel metal-air battery, with low cost and easy maintenance for large-scale UPS applications. An extensive analysis was performed to apply our metal-air battery to the hybrid UPS model. In this study, we focus on including an optimal control system for high battery performance. We developed an algorithm based on receding horizon control (RHC) for each fan of the cooling system. The algorithm reflects the operation properties of the metal-air battery so that it can supply power for a long time. We solved RHC by applying dynamic programming (DP) for a corresponding time. Different variables, such as current density, oxygen concentration, and temperature, were considered for the application of DP. Additionally, a 1.5-dimensional DP, which is used for solving the RHC, was developed using the state variables with high sensitivity and considering the battery characteristics. Because there is no other control variable during operation, only one control variable, the fan flow, was used, and the state variables were divided by section rather than a point. Thus, we not only developed a sub-optimal control strategy for the UPS but also found that fan control can improve the performance of metal-air batteries. The sub-optimal control strategy showed stable and 6–10% of improvement in UPS operating time based on the simulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooling system; dynamic programming; metal-air battery; receding horizon control; state variables; uninterruptible power supply cooling system; dynamic programming; metal-air battery; receding horizon control; state variables; uninterruptible power supply
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, B.; Lee, H.; Kang, C.; Sung, D.; Lee, S.; Yun, S.; Park, S.K.; Cho, G.-Y.; Kim, N.; Cha, S.W. Receding Horizon Control of Cooling Systems for Large-Size Uninterruptible Power Supply Based on a Metal-Air Battery System. Energies 2020, 13, 1611. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071611

AMA Style

Gu B, Lee H, Kang C, Sung D, Lee S, Yun S, Park SK, Cho G-Y, Kim N, Cha SW. Receding Horizon Control of Cooling Systems for Large-Size Uninterruptible Power Supply Based on a Metal-Air Battery System. Energies. 2020; 13(7):1611. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071611

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Bonhyun; Lee, Heeyun; Kang, Changbeom; Sung, Donghwan; Lee, Sanghoon; Yun, Sunghyun; Park, Sung K.; Cho, Gu-Young; Kim, Namwook; Cha, Suk W. 2020. "Receding Horizon Control of Cooling Systems for Large-Size Uninterruptible Power Supply Based on a Metal-Air Battery System" Energies 13, no. 7: 1611. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071611

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