Special Issue "Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical Power and Energy System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José Antonio Domínguez-Navarro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle María de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: electrical network planning; renewable energy integration; application of computing techniques (neural networks, fuzzy systems and heuristic optimization algorithms)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. José María Yusta-Loyo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Calle María de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: energy markets; optimal dispatch of smart grids; vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The analysis, operation and control of power systems are increasingly complex tasks that require advanced simulation models to analyze and control the effects of transformations concerning electricity grids today: massive integration of renewable energies, progressive implementation of electric vehicles, development of intelligent networks, and progressive evolution of the applications of artificial intelligence.

This Special Issue aims to group all the alternative paradigms that are being developed to go beyond the current simulation and control programs. These include, in particular but not exclusively:

- Multi-agent systems;
- Parallel programming;
- Heuristic techniques;
- Optimization algorithms;
- Neural networks and Deep learning;
- Fuzzy systems.

Prof. Dr. José Antonio Domínguez-Navarro
Prof. Dr. José María Yusta-Loyo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power system modeling
  • Soft computing techniques
  • Optimization algorithms
  • Renewable energies

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Optimization of Spatial Configuration of Multistrand Cable Lines
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5923; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225923 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 412
Abstract
Skin and proximity effects have a considerable impact on current distribution in multistrand cable lines. Under unfavorable heat exchange conditions, some strands may be subject to excessive overheating, which may lead to serious malfunctions or even fires of the installation. The paper proposes [...] Read more.
Skin and proximity effects have a considerable impact on current distribution in multistrand cable lines. Under unfavorable heat exchange conditions, some strands may be subject to excessive overheating, which may lead to serious malfunctions or even fires of the installation. The paper proposes a new criterion for a quick choice of spatial configurations, for which the effect might be minimized. A comprehensive analysis of literature cases is provided, including the recommendations of the U.S. National Code and the Canadian standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Solar Radiation Estimation Using Data Mining Techniques for Remote Areas—A Case Study in Ethiopia
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5714; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215714 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 477
Abstract
High quality of solar radiation data is essential for solar resource assessment. For remote areas this is a challenge, as often only satellite data with low spatial resolution are available. This paper presents an interpolation method based on topographic data in digital elevation [...] Read more.
High quality of solar radiation data is essential for solar resource assessment. For remote areas this is a challenge, as often only satellite data with low spatial resolution are available. This paper presents an interpolation method based on topographic data in digital elevation model format to improve the resolution of solar radiation maps. The refinement is performed with a data mining method based on first-order Sugeno type Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. The training set contains topographic characteristics such as terrain aspect, slope and elevation which may influence the solar radiation distribution. An efficient sampling method is proposed to obtain representative training sets from digital elevation model data. The proposed geographic information system based approach makes this method reproducible and adaptable for any region. A case study is presented on the remote Amhara region in North Shewa, Ethiopia. Results are shown for interpolation of solar radiation data from 10 km × 10 km to a resolution of 1 km × 1 km and are validated with data from the PVGIS and SWERA projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Adaptive Algorithm of a Tap-Changer Controller of the Power Transformer Supplying the Radial Network Reducing the Risk of Voltage Collapse
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5403; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205403 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 416
Abstract
The development of renewable energy, including wind farms, photovoltaic farms as well as prosumer installations, and the development of electromobility pose new challenges for network operators. The results of these changes are, among others, the change of network load profiles and load flows [...] Read more.
The development of renewable energy, including wind farms, photovoltaic farms as well as prosumer installations, and the development of electromobility pose new challenges for network operators. The results of these changes are, among others, the change of network load profiles and load flows determining greater volatility of voltages. Most of the proposed solutions do not assume a change of the transformer regulator algorithm. The possibilities of improving the quality of regulation, which can be found in the literature, most often include various methods of coordination of the operation of the transformer regulator with various devices operating in the Medium-Voltage (MV) network. This coordination can be decentralized or centralized. Unfortunately, the proposed solutions often require costly technical resources and/or large amounts of real-time data monitoring. The goal of the authors was to create an algorithm that extends the functionality of typical transformer control algorithms. The proposed solution allows for reducing the risk of voltage collapse. The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using multivariate computer simulations and tests with the use of a physical model of the distribution network. The DIgSILENT PowerFactory environment was used to develop the simulation model of the proposed algorithm. Then, tests were conducted on real devices installed in the LINTEˆ2 Laboratory at the Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland. Selected test results are included in this paper. All results have shown that the proposed algorithm makes it possible to increase the reserve of the voltage stability of the node, in which it is applied, thus mitigating the risk of a voltage collapse occurring. The proposed algorithm does not require complex and costly technical solutions. Owing to its simplicity, it has a high potential for practical application, as confirmed by the real-time control experiment in the laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Dynamic-Model-Based AGC Frequency Control Simulation Method for Korean Power System
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5052; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195052 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 669
Abstract
To fulfill the need of operating power systems more effectively through diverse resources, frequency control conditions for maintaining a balance between generators and loads need to be provided accurately. As frequency control is generally achieved via the governor responses from local generators and [...] Read more.
To fulfill the need of operating power systems more effectively through diverse resources, frequency control conditions for maintaining a balance between generators and loads need to be provided accurately. As frequency control is generally achieved via the governor responses from local generators and the automatic generation control (AGC) frequency control of the central energy management system, it is important to coordinate these two mechanisms of frequency control efficiently. This paper proposes a dynamic-model-based AGC frequency control simulation method that can be designed and analyzed using the governor responses of generators, which are represented through dynamic models in the planning stage. In the proposed simulation model, the mechanism of the AGC frequency control is implemented based on the dynamic models of the power system, including governors and generators; hence, frequency responses from the governors and AGC can be sequentially simulated to coordinate and operate these two mechanisms efficiently. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified by simulating the AGC frequency control of the Korean power system and analyzing the coordination effect of the frequency responses from the governors and AGC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Modelling of Distributed Resource Aggregation for the Provision of Ancillary Services
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4598; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184598 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
Nowadays, ancillary services (ASs) are usually provided by large power generating units located in transmission networks, while smaller assets connected to distribution systems remain passive. It is expected that active distribution systems will start to play an important role due to numerous issues [...] Read more.
Nowadays, ancillary services (ASs) are usually provided by large power generating units located in transmission networks, while smaller assets connected to distribution systems remain passive. It is expected that active distribution systems will start to play an important role due to numerous issues related to power system operation caused mainly by developing renewable generation and restrictions imposed on conventional power generating units by climate policies. The future development of the power system management will also lead to the establishment of new market agents such as distributed resource aggregators (DRAs). The article presents the concept of the DRA as part of an active distribution system enabling small resources to participate in wholesale markets, provide ASs and indicates the functions of the DRA coordinator in the modern power system. The proposed method of the DRA structure modelling with the use of the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is aimed at evaluating the optimal operation pattern of participating resources, the desired shape of the load profile at the point of common coupling (PCC) and the AS provision. The performed simulations of the DRA’s operation show that various types of aggregated resources located in distribution networks are able to provide different services effectively to support the power system in terms of load–generation balancing and allow for further development of renewables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Optimal Selection of Time-Current Characteristic of Overcurrent Protection for Induction Motors in Drives of Mining Machines with Prolonged Starting Time
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4466; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174466 - 29 Aug 2020
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of mine power network impedance on the starting time of induction motors, as well as on the operation of overcurrent protection relay. Proper selection of the time-current characteristic of overcurrent protection is crucial [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of mine power network impedance on the starting time of induction motors, as well as on the operation of overcurrent protection relay. Proper selection of the time-current characteristic of overcurrent protection is crucial for the operation of the drive. A specific feature of mining power grids is their high impedance, which results from long cable lines with relatively small cross-sections. This causes relatively large voltage drops and significantly reduces the starting torque of the motor. Reduced starting torque increases the starting time and intensifies the motor overheating. This study analyzes a series of standardized time-current characteristics used in Invertim company protection devices. A simulation study of startup current and starting time was conducted for an exemplary medium-power motor with a large inertia fan at different values of power supply voltage below the rated value. Parameters of the motor equivalent circuit were calculated on the basis of manufacturer data. A new shape of the time-current characteristic has been proposed that would allow for prolonged starting at significant voltage drop in the mine network, ensuring protection from failed starting. This solution can be implemented in digital protection relays in addition to the standard characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
A Novel Market Clearing and Safety Checking Method for Multi-Type Units That Considers Flexible Loads
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3771; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13153771 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Flexible loads have flexibility and variability in time and space, and they have been widely studied by scholars. However, the research on the participation of flexible loads in market clearing and safety checking is still insufficient. We propose a market clearing and safety [...] Read more.
Flexible loads have flexibility and variability in time and space, and they have been widely studied by scholars. However, the research on the participation of flexible loads in market clearing and safety checking is still insufficient. We propose a market clearing and safety checking method for multi-type units that considers flexible loads. First, the flexible load is divided into reducible loads, shiftable loads, and convertible loads, and its mathematical model is established. Then, the convertible loads are considered in the market clearing model, and the power management agency executes the market clearing procedure to obtain the clearing result. When the line power exceeds the limit as a result of clearing, the power flow of the branches and sections is eliminated by adjusting the unit output and reducing the flexible load at the same time, and a safety checking model considering load reduction is established. The marginal electricity price of the nodes is obtained by the interior point method, and we solve the model by calling the CPLEX (v12.7.1) solver in GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System v24.9.1). We use a regional power grid of 220 kV and above as an example for analysis; the results show that the proposed method can reduce the marginal electricity price of the nodes, reduce the cost of safety checking, and improve the safety of the market clearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
A Gini Coefficient-Based Impartial and Open Dispatching Model
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3146; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123146 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 521
Abstract
According to the existing widely applied impartial and open dispatching models, operation fairness was mainly emphasized, which severely restricted the optimization space of the economy of the overall system operation and affected the economic benefits. To solve the above problems, a scheduling model [...] Read more.
According to the existing widely applied impartial and open dispatching models, operation fairness was mainly emphasized, which severely restricted the optimization space of the economy of the overall system operation and affected the economic benefits. To solve the above problems, a scheduling model based on Gini coefficient under impartial and open dispatching principle is proposed in this paper, which can consider the balance between the fairness and economy of system operation. In the proposed model, the Gini coefficient is introduced to describe the fairness of electric energy completion rate among different generation units in the form of constraint conditions. Because the electricity production schedule can reflect the economic income of the electric power enterprise, and the Gini coefficient is used as an economic statistical indicator to evaluate the fairness in the overall distribution of income in social statistics, it is more appropriate to be used to measure the fairness of the power generation dispatching. The objective of the proposed model is to minimize the total operation costs. In the model, the balance between the system operation economy and fairness can be realized by adjusting the Gini coefficient value. The simulation results show that the proposed model is an extension of the traditional model. Compared with the traditional economic dispatching model and normal “impartial and open dispatching” model, the proposed model can better coordinate the relationship between fairness and economy. It could provide more choices for power generation dispatchers. It could also provide a reference for regulatory departments to formulate relevant policies by adjusting the threshold value of the Gini coefficient. Case studies show that the power dispatching decisions according to the proposed model can provide a scientific and fair reference basis for dispatching schemes, and could reduce the generation costs and also achieve optimal allocation of resources on the basis of ensuring fair dispatching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Multi-Objective Tabu Search for the Location and Sizing of Multiple Types of FACTS and DG in Electrical Networks
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2722; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112722 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Flexible AC transmission systems and distributed generation units in power systems provide several benefits such as voltage stability, power loss minimization, thermal limits enhancement, or enables power system management close to the limit operation points; and by extension, economic benefits such as power [...] Read more.
Flexible AC transmission systems and distributed generation units in power systems provide several benefits such as voltage stability, power loss minimization, thermal limits enhancement, or enables power system management close to the limit operation points; and by extension, economic benefits such as power fuel cost and power loss cost minimization. This work presents a multi-objective optimization algorithm to determine the location and size of hybrid solutions based on a combination of Flexible AC transmission systems devices and distributed generation. Further, the work expands the types of FACTS usually considered. The problem is solved by means of a Tabu search algorithm with good results when tested in a network of 300 nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Preventive Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow with Probabilistic Guarantees
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092344 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 512
Abstract
The traditional security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) model under the classical N-1 criterion is implemented in the power industry to ensure the secure operation of a power system. However, with increasing uncertainties from renewable energy sources (RES) and loads, the existing SCOPF model [...] Read more.
The traditional security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) model under the classical N-1 criterion is implemented in the power industry to ensure the secure operation of a power system. However, with increasing uncertainties from renewable energy sources (RES) and loads, the existing SCOPF model has difficulty meeting the practical requirements of the industry. This paper proposed a novel chance-constrained preventive SCOPF model that considers the uncertainty of power injections, including RES and load, and contingency probability. The chance constraint is used to constrain the overall line flow within the limits with high probabilistic guarantees and to significantly reduce the constraint scales. The cumulant and Johnson systems were combined to accurately approximate the cumulative distribution functions, which is important in solving chance-constrained optimization problems. The simulation results show that the model proposed in this paper can achieve better performance than traditional SCOPF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Receding Horizon Control of Cooling Systems for Large-Size Uninterruptible Power Supply Based on a Metal-Air Battery System
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071611 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 962
Abstract
As application of electric energy have expanded, the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) concept has attracted considerable attention, and new UPS technologies have been developed. Despite the extensive research on the batteries for UPS, conventional batteries are still being used in large-scale UPS systems. [...] Read more.
As application of electric energy have expanded, the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) concept has attracted considerable attention, and new UPS technologies have been developed. Despite the extensive research on the batteries for UPS, conventional batteries are still being used in large-scale UPS systems. However, lead-acid batteries, which are currently widely adopted in UPS, require frequent maintenance and are relatively expensive as compared with some other kinds of batteries, like metal-air batteries. In previous work, we designed a novel metal-air battery, with low cost and easy maintenance for large-scale UPS applications. An extensive analysis was performed to apply our metal-air battery to the hybrid UPS model. In this study, we focus on including an optimal control system for high battery performance. We developed an algorithm based on receding horizon control (RHC) for each fan of the cooling system. The algorithm reflects the operation properties of the metal-air battery so that it can supply power for a long time. We solved RHC by applying dynamic programming (DP) for a corresponding time. Different variables, such as current density, oxygen concentration, and temperature, were considered for the application of DP. Additionally, a 1.5-dimensional DP, which is used for solving the RHC, was developed using the state variables with high sensitivity and considering the battery characteristics. Because there is no other control variable during operation, only one control variable, the fan flow, was used, and the state variables were divided by section rather than a point. Thus, we not only developed a sub-optimal control strategy for the UPS but also found that fan control can improve the performance of metal-air batteries. The sub-optimal control strategy showed stable and 6–10% of improvement in UPS operating time based on the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Article
Sensitivity Analysis of the Impact of the Sub- Hourly Stochastic Unit Commitment on Power System Dynamics
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061468 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Subhourly modeling of power systems and the use of the stochastic optimization are two relevant solutions proposed in the literature to address the integration of stochastic renewable energy sources. With this aim, this paper deals with the effect of different formulations of the [...] Read more.
Subhourly modeling of power systems and the use of the stochastic optimization are two relevant solutions proposed in the literature to address the integration of stochastic renewable energy sources. With this aim, this paper deals with the effect of different formulations of the subhourly stochastic unit commitment (SUC) problem on power system dynamics. Different SUC models are presented and embedded into time domain simulations (TDS) through a cosimulation platform. The objective of the paper is to study the combined impact of different frequency control/machine parameters and different SUC formulations on the long-term dynamic behaviour of power systems. The analysis is based on extensive Monte Carlo TDS (MC-TDS) and a variety of scenarios based on the New England 39-bus system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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Review

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Review
Parallel Power Flow Computation Trends and Applications: A Review Focusing on GPU
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092147 - 01 May 2020
Viewed by 706
Abstract
A power flow study aims to analyze a power system by obtaining the voltage and phase angle of buses inside the power system. Power flow computation basically uses a numerical method to solve a nonlinear system, which takes a certain amount of time [...] Read more.
A power flow study aims to analyze a power system by obtaining the voltage and phase angle of buses inside the power system. Power flow computation basically uses a numerical method to solve a nonlinear system, which takes a certain amount of time because it may take many iterations to find the final solution. In addition, as the size and complexity of power systems increase, further computational power is required for power system study. Therefore, there have been many attempts to conduct power flow computation with large amounts of data using parallel computing to reduce the computation time. Furthermore, with recent system developments, attempts have been made to increase the speed of parallel computing using graphics processing units (GPU). In this review paper, we summarize issues related to parallel processing in power flow studies and analyze research into the performance of fast power flow computations using parallel computing methods with GPU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Power System Simulation, Control and Optimization)
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