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Open AccessArticle

En-Route Battery Management and a Mixed Network Equilibrium Problem Based on Electric Vehicle Drivers’ En-Route Recharging Behaviors

by Kai Liu 1,2,*, Sijia Luo 2 and Jing Zhou 2
1
School of Management, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003, China
2
School of Engineering and Management, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4061; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13164061
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Management for Electric Vehicles)
With the rapidly increasing number of electric vehicle users, in many urbans transport networks, there are mixed traffic flows (i.e., electric vehicles and gasoline vehicles). However, limited by driving ranges and long battery recharging, the battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers’ route choice behaviors are inevitably affected. This paper assumes that in a transportation network, when BEV drivers are traveling between their original location and destinations, they tend to select the path with the minimal driving times and recharging time, and ensure that the remaining charge is not less than their battery safety margin. In contrast, gasoline vehicle drivers tend to select the path with the minimal driving time. Thus, by considering BEV drivers’ battery management strategies, e.g., battery safety margins and en-route recharging behaviors, this paper developed a mixed user equilibrium model to describe the resulting network equilibrium flow distributions. Finally, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the mixed user equilibrium model. The results show that BEV drivers’ en-route recharging choice behaviors are significantly influenced by their battery safety margins, and under the equilibrium, the travel routes selected by some BEV drivers may not be optimal, but the total travel time may be more optimal. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery management; mixed network equilibrium; battery electric vehicles; gasoline vehicles; en-route recharging behavior battery management; mixed network equilibrium; battery electric vehicles; gasoline vehicles; en-route recharging behavior
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, K.; Luo, S.; Zhou, J. En-Route Battery Management and a Mixed Network Equilibrium Problem Based on Electric Vehicle Drivers’ En-Route Recharging Behaviors. Energies 2020, 13, 4061.

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