Oil shale is one of the alternative energies and fuel solutions in Jordan because of the scarcity of conventional sources, such as petroleum, coal, and gas. Oil from oil shale reservoirs can be produced commercially by pyrolysis technology. To optimize the process, mechanisms and rates of reactions need to be investigated. Omari oil shale formation in Jordan was selected as a case study, for which no kinetic models are available in the literature. Oil shale was analyzed using the Fischer assay method, proximate analysis (moisture, volatile, and ash), gross calorific value, elemental analysis (CHNS), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis was applied to study the kinetic parameters (activation energy and frequency factor) at four selected heating rates (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min). When oil shale was heated from room temperature to 1100 °C, the weight loss profile exhibited three different zones: drying (devolatilization), pyrolysis, and mineral decomposition. For each zone, the kinetic parameters were calculated using three selected methods: integral, temperature integral approximation, and direct Arrhenius plot. Furthermore, the activation energy in the pyrolysis zone was 112–116 kJ/mol, while the frequency factor was 2.0 × 107
− 1.5 × 109
. Moreover, the heating rate has a directly proportional relationship with the rate constant at each zone. The three different methods gave comparable results for the kinetic parameters with a higher coefficient of determination (R2
) for the integral and temperature integral approximation compared with the direct Arrhenius plot. The determined kinetic parameters for Omari formation can be employed in developing pyrolysis reactor models.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited