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Energies 2019, 12(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030528

Investigation on Conversion Pathways in Degradative Solvent Extraction of Rice Straw by Using Liquid Membrane-FTIR Spectroscopy

1
Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, 611-0011 Kyoto, Japan
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 615-8510 Kyoto, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract

Degradative solvent extraction (DSE) is effective in both dewatering and upgrading biomass wastes through the selective removal of oxygen functional groups. However, this conversion mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, liquid membrane-FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to examine the main liquid product (Solvent-soluble) without sample modification. Rice straw (RS) and 1-methylnaphthalene (as a non-hydrogen donor solvent) were used as materials, and measurements were performed at treatment temperatures of 200, 250, 300, and 350 °C for 0 min, and at 350 °C for 60 min. The Solvent-soluble spectra were quantitatively analyzed, and changes in the oxygen-containing functional groups and hydrogen bonds at each temperature were used to characterize the DSE mechanism. It was determined that the DSE reaction process can be divided into three stages. During the first stage, 200–300 °C (0 min), oxygen was removed via dehydration, and aromaticity was observed. In the second stage, 300–350 °C (0 min), deoxygenation reactions involving dehydration and decarboxylation were followed by reactions for aromatization. For the third stage, 350 °C (0–60 min), further aromatization and dehydration reactions were observed. Intramolecular reactions are indicated as the predominant mechanism for dehydration in RS DSE, and the final product is composed of smaller molecular compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; degradative solvent extraction; dewater; Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR); rice straw; upgrade biomass; degradative solvent extraction; dewater; Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR); rice straw; upgrade
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ketren, W.; Zen, H.; Ashida, R.; Kii, T.; Ohgaki, H. Investigation on Conversion Pathways in Degradative Solvent Extraction of Rice Straw by Using Liquid Membrane-FTIR Spectroscopy. Energies 2019, 12, 528.

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