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Energies 2019, 12(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030523

The Influence of Residence Time during Hydrothermal Carbonisation of Miscanthus on Bio-Coal Combustion Chemistry

1
School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Hangøvej 2, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
2
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract

Miscanthus was treated by hydrothermal carbonisation in a 2-L batch reactor at 200 °C and 250 °C with residence times ranging between 0 and 24 h to understand the impact of residence time has on the resulting bio-coal combustion chemistry. Increasing the residence time results in dehydration of the bio-coal and increased repolymerisation; however, temperature has the greatest influence on bio-coal properties. After 24 h at 200 °C, bio-coal has similar properties to that of the 250 °C + 0 h bio-coal. After 1 h at 250 °C, the cellulose present in the raw biomass appears to be largely removed. The removal of cellulose and the associated dehydration and repolymerisation results in bio-coal having a ‘coal like’ combustion profile, which exhibits a decreasing reactivity with increasing residence time. At 200 °C + 0 h, 75% of the alkali metal is removed, increasing to 86% with increasing residence time. Further extraction is seen at 250 °C. Phosphorus and sulphur appear to undergo substantial extraction at 200 °C + 0 h but then are reincorporated with increasing residence time. The calcium content increases in the bio-coal with increasing residence time at 200 °C but then reduces after 1 h at 250 °C. Increasing temperature and residence time has been shown to decrease the fuels’ fouling and slagging propensity. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTC; bio-coal; severity factor; slagging; fouling; corrosion; process chemistry; pulverised fuel; combustion HTC; bio-coal; severity factor; slagging; fouling; corrosion; process chemistry; pulverised fuel; combustion
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Smith, A.M.; Ross, A.B. The Influence of Residence Time during Hydrothermal Carbonisation of Miscanthus on Bio-Coal Combustion Chemistry. Energies 2019, 12, 523.

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