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Open AccessArticle

Global Climate Data Processing and Mapping of Degradation Mechanisms and Degradation Rates of PV Modules

1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Fraunhofer Institute of Solar Energy, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
3
School of Industrial Engineering, University of Malaga, 29016 Malaga, Andalucia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4749; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244749
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 4 December 2019 / Accepted: 7 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are the cheapest source of electricity in sunny locations and nearly all European countries. However, the fast deployment of PV systems around the world is bringing uncertainty to the PV community in terms of the reliability and long-term performance of PV modules under different climatic stresses, such as irradiation, temperature changes, and humidity. Methodologies and models to estimate the annual degradation rates of PV modules have been studied in the past, yet, an evaluation of the issue at global scale has not been addressed so far. Hereby, we process the ERA5 climate re-analysis dataset to extract and model the climatic stresses necessary for the calculation of degradation rates. These stresses are then applied to evaluate three degradation mechanisms (hydrolysis-degradation, thermomechanical-degradation, and photo- degradation) and the total degradation rate of PV modules due to the combination of temperature, humidity, and ultraviolet irradiation. Further on, spatial distribution of the degradation rates worldwide is computed and discussed proving direct correlation with the Köppen-Geiger-Photovoltaic climate zones, showing that the typical value considered for the degradation rate on PV design and manufacturer warranties (i.e., 0.5%/a) can vary ± 0.3%/a in the temperate zones of Europe and rise up to 1.5%/a globally. The mapping of degradation mechanisms and total degradation rates is provided for a monocrystalline silicon PV module. Additionally, we analyze the temporal evolution of degradation rates, where a global degradation rate is introduced and its dependence on global ambient temperature demonstrated. Finally, the categorization of degradation rates is made for Europe and worldwide to facilitate the understanding of the climatic stresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic; degradation; PV systems; climate zones; climate data photovoltaic; degradation; PV systems; climate zones; climate data
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.17632/3nt652dwwx.1
    Link: https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/3nt652dwwx/1
    Description: Data for: Global Climate Data Processing and Mapping of Degradation Mechanisms and Degradation Rates of PV Modules Description: Worldwide mapping of Degradation Mechanisms and Total degradation rate for a specific mono c-Si PV module. Data for the accepted paper "Global Climate Data Processing and Mapping of Degradation Mechanisms and Degradation Rates of PV Modules" in Energies MDPI. Paper accepted date: 6 December 2019 Julián Ascencio-Vásquez 1,*, Ismail Kaaya 2,3, Kristijan Brecl 1, Karl-Anders Weiss 2 and Marko Topič 1 1 Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Tržaška cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; 2 Fraunhofer Institute of Solar Energy, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; 3 School of Industrial Engineering, University of Malaga, 29016 Malaga, Andalucia, Spain * Correspondence: [email protected]
MDPI and ACS Style

Ascencio-Vásquez, J.; Kaaya, I.; Brecl, K.; Weiss, K.-A.; Topič, M. Global Climate Data Processing and Mapping of Degradation Mechanisms and Degradation Rates of PV Modules. Energies 2019, 12, 4749.

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