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District Heating Systems: An Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of the 4GDH

Institute of Software Technology, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4748;
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 30 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
Fourth-generation district heating networks (4GDH) can play a special role in the efficient and climate-friendly use of energy. In this study, we have examined the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of this innovative technology. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods, we assessed the SWOT-factors in terms of their importance. Among the factors that were weighted with the highest relative importance were the ability of 4GDH to serve as a label bundling and stimulating considerations with respect to the further development of district heating systems and the increased value creation within the national economy through the inclusion of local, renewable energy sources. Moreover, the interviewed experts agreed that regulatory frameworks in the context of 4GDH have to be further developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: district heating; 4GDH; SWOT district heating; 4GDH; SWOT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schweiger, G.; Kuttin, F.; Posch, A. District Heating Systems: An Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of the 4GDH. Energies 2019, 12, 4748.

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