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Open AccessArticle

Thermal Runaway Characteristics of a Large Format Lithium-Ion Battery Module

National Engineering Lab for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
BNET Blueway New Energy Technology Co. Ltd., Huizhou 516006, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(16), 3099;
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Battery Technologies for Energy Storage Devices)
PDF [4088 KB, uploaded 19 August 2019]


The overheat abuse experiment of a 12S1P 37 Ah prismatic Lithium-ion battery module in a nominal energy of 1.65 kWh is conducted in this work. The cell behaviors and characterization in the process of thermal runaway propagation is investigated, including the gas eruption, the fire ejection, the flame combustion, the audio features, and the heat transfer, respectively. In the experiment, the central cell is heated on both sides until the pole temperature moves beyond 300 °C, the thermal runaway undergoes about 43 min and propagates from the central to both sides in the module, and all 12 cells burn. Results show that the first three runaway cells spout gas at first, and, then, emit sound with close amplitudes, frequencies, and energies, about 200 s earlier than the fire ejection. Then, the characteristic of the internal short circuit is the temperature rate zone of 1.0 K/s with time greater than 20 s. Moreover, the proposed thermal propagation coefficient is used to assess the thermal propagation capabilities of the runaway cells on their adjacent cells, and this explains the runaway sequence. It is anticipated that the experimental results can provide the deep understanding, thermal runaway warning, and evaluation method for the module safety design. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion battery; thermal abuse; thermal runaway propagation lithium-ion battery; thermal abuse; thermal runaway propagation

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Cheng, X.; Li, T.; Ruan, X.; Wang, Z. Thermal Runaway Characteristics of a Large Format Lithium-Ion Battery Module. Energies 2019, 12, 3099.

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