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The Design of High Efficiency Crossflow Hydro Turbines: A Review and Extension

by Ram Adhikari and David Wood *,†
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Energies 2018, 11(2), 267;
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
Efficiency is a critical consideration in the design of hydro turbines. The crossflow turbine is the cheapest and easiest hydro turbine to manufacture and so is commonly used in remote power systems for developing countries. A longstanding problem for practical crossflow turbines is their lower maximum efficiency compared to their more advanced counterparts, such as Pelton and Francis turbines. This paper reviews the experimental and computational studies relevant to the design of high efficiency crossflow turbines. We concentrate on the studies that have contributed to designs with efficiencies in the range of 88–90%. Many recent studies have been conducted on turbines of low maximum efficiency, which we believe is due to misunderstanding of design principles for achieving high efficiencies. We synthesize the key results of experimental and computational fluid dynamics studies to highlight the key fundamental design principles for achieving efficiencies of about 90%, as well as future research and development areas to further improve the maximum efficiency. The main finding of this review is that the total conversion of head into kinetic energy in the nozzle and the matching of nozzle and runner designs are the two main design requirements for the design of high efficiency turbines. View Full-Text
Keywords: crossflow hydro-turbine; maximum efficiency; flow features; RANS simulation crossflow hydro-turbine; maximum efficiency; flow features; RANS simulation
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Adhikari, R.; Wood, D. The Design of High Efficiency Crossflow Hydro Turbines: A Review and Extension. Energies 2018, 11, 267.

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