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Energies 2017, 10(8), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10081217

A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development

1
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203, Bangladesh
2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
3
Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, Kobberslagerstredet 5, 1671 Kråkeroy-Fredrikstad, Norway
4
Department of Electrical Engineering & Renewable Energy, Oregon Tech, Klamath Falls, OR 97601, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sergio Saponara
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017

Abstract

Electric vehicles (EV), including Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV), are becoming more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in the near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system could face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration, but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of the smart grid concept. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before totally replacing ICE vehicles. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, battery energy sources, electrical machines, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle; energy sources; motors; charging technologies; effects of EVs; limitations of EVs; energy management; control algorithms; global EV sales; trends and future developments electric vehicle; energy sources; motors; charging technologies; effects of EVs; limitations of EVs; energy management; control algorithms; global EV sales; trends and future developments
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Un-Noor, F.; Padmanaban, S.; Mihet-Popa, L.; Mollah, M.N.; Hossain, E. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development. Energies 2017, 10, 1217.

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