In view of severe changes in temperature during different seasons in cold areas of northern China, the decay of battery capacity of electric vehicles poses a problem. This paper uses an electric bus power system with semi-active hybrid energy storage system (HESS) as the research object and proposes a convex power distribution strategy to optimize the battery current that represents degradation of battery capacity based on the analysis of semi-empirical LiFePO4
battery life decline model. Simulation results show that, at a room temperature of 25 °C, during a daily trip organized by the Harbin City Driving Cycle including four cycle lines and four charging phases, the percentage of battery degradation was 9.6 × 10−3
%. According to the average temperature of different months in Harbin, the percentage of battery degradation of the power distribution strategy proposed in this paper is 3.15% in one year; the electric bus can operate for 6.4 years until its capacity reduces to 80% of its initial value, and it can operate for 0.51 year more than the rule-based power distribution strategy.
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