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Open AccessArticle

Efficient Low Temperature Hydrothermal Carbonization of Chinese Reed for Biochar with High Energy Density

by 1,2, 1 and 2,*
1
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
2
Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, CAS. No. 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10122094
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications Ⅱ)
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), as an environmental friendly process, presents wide potential applicability for converting biomass to biochar with high energy density. Reed, a major energy crop, was converted by a HTC process in a batch reactor at 200–280 °C for 0.5 to 4 h. Biochar mass yield changed from 66.7% to 19.2% and high heating value (HHV) from 20.0 kJ/g to 28.3 kJ/g, respectively, by increasing the carbonization temperature from 200 °C to 280 °C and decreasing the residence time from 2 h to 1 h. The Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results indicated the lignocellulosic crosslink structure of reed is broken and biochar having a high energy density is obtained with the increase of temperature. The microcrystal features of reed are destroyed and biochar contained mainly lignin fractions. The HTC of biocrude is carried out at 200–280 °C for 2.0 h and the results showed that the obtained biochar has uniform particles filled with carbon microspheres. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization (HTC); Chinese reed; biocrude; biochar; high heating value (HHV) hydrothermal carbonization (HTC); Chinese reed; biocrude; biochar; high heating value (HHV)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, C.; Huang, X.; Kong, L. Efficient Low Temperature Hydrothermal Carbonization of Chinese Reed for Biochar with High Energy Density. Energies 2017, 10, 2094.

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