Next Article in Journal
Predictors of Employment Status for Persons with Bipolar Disorder
Next Article in Special Issue
Regulating Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) in Colombia
Previous Article in Journal
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Myanmar Migrant Workers in Thailand
Previous Article in Special Issue
Safely Managed On-Site Sanitation: A National Assessment of Sanitation Services and Potential Fecal Exposure in Indonesia
Article

Prevalence and Correlates of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Spatial Distribution of Unimproved WASH in Nepal

1
Centre for Women’s Health Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
2
National Health Education, Information and Communication Centre, Ministry of Health, and Population, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
3
Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, NSW 2308, Australia
4
Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ricard Giné-Garriga, Guy Hutton, Marcello Basani, Meera Mehta and Dinesh Mehta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063507
Received: 20 January 2022 / Revised: 11 March 2022 / Accepted: 12 March 2022 / Published: 16 March 2022
This study aims to estimate the prevalence and correlation of household levels of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), including the identification of areas where WASH facilities are unimproved in Nepal. The study population was 11,040 household heads, using the data collected in the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Logistic regression analysis was performed and crude odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a 0.05 significance level are presented. Getis–Ord Gi* statistics were used to identify the hot and cold spot areas of unimproved WASH. GPS locations of WASH points were used for spatial analysis. Approximately 95% of households had an improved water source, 84% had improved sanitation facilities, 81% had a fixed place for handwashing, and 47% had soap and water. Education, wealth, and ecology were significantly associated with WASH. The people from the hills were less likely to have an improved water source (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16–0.64) than those from the plain. Households with a poor wealth index had 78% lower odds of having an improved water source compared to households with a rich wealth index. Respondents from Madhes Province had lower odds (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.08–0.28) and Gandaki Pradesh had the highest odds (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.52–5.61) of having improved sanitation facilities compared to Province 1. Respondents aged 35–44 years had higher odds (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.04–1.29) of having soap and water available compared to those aged 45 years and older. Education and geographical disparities were the factors associated with having reduced access to WASH. These findings suggest the need to focus on advocacy, services, and policy approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: household; improved; unimproved; WASH; spatial distribution; Nepal household; improved; unimproved; WASH; spatial distribution; Nepal
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dhital, S.R.; Chojenta, C.; Evans, T.-J.; Acharya, T.D.; Loxton, D. Prevalence and Correlates of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Spatial Distribution of Unimproved WASH in Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 3507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063507

AMA Style

Dhital SR, Chojenta C, Evans T-J, Acharya TD, Loxton D. Prevalence and Correlates of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Spatial Distribution of Unimproved WASH in Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(6):3507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063507

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dhital, Shalik R., Catherine Chojenta, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Tri D. Acharya, and Deborah Loxton. 2022. "Prevalence and Correlates of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Spatial Distribution of Unimproved WASH in Nepal" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 6: 3507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063507

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop