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Review

Influence of Chronic Exposure to Exercise on Heart Rate Variability in Children and Adolescents Affected by Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Postgraduate Program in Medicine (Cardiology), Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), São Paulo 04021-001, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (FMUSP), São Paulo 01246-903, Brazil
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Department of Health Sciences, University of the West of São Paulo (UNOESTE), Presidente Prudente 19050-680, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Physical Activity Sciences, School of Arts, Science and Humanities, University of São Paulo (EACHUSP), São Paulo 03828-000, Brazil
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Faculty of Medicine, City University of São Paulo (UNICID), São Paulo 03071-000, Brazil
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Department of Physiotherapy, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, São Paulo 01302-907, Brazil
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Study Design and Scientific Writing Laboratory, ABC Medical School (FMABC), Santo André, São Paulo 09060-870, Brazil
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Cardiorespiratory Research Group, Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Headington Campus, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first author: Rodrigo M. Dias and Íbis A. P. Moraes should be considered joint first author (This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical, Psychological, and Social Health in Youth through Exercise and Healthy Behaviors).
Academic Editor: Armando Cocca
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111065
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 11 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
Background: Sedentary lifestyles are increasingly common amongst children, and insufficient physical activity is a global epidemic estimated to contribute to future incapacities and potential deaths. Objective: We aimed to increase the amount of evidence concerning the effect of chronic exposure to exercise on heart rate variability in children and adolescents affected by obesity. Methods: A systematic review commenced following the PRISMA guidelines developed by Web of Science, Virtual Health Library, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Ovid, Medline Complete, and Scopus using keywords obtained from the Descriptors in Health Sciences and Medical Subject Headlines (MeSH) terms. We considered (1) Population: Pediatric individuals affected by obesity; (2) Intervention: Exercise; (3) Control: Pre-intervention and sedentary; (4) Outcomes: Clearly presented primary parameters; and (5) Studies: Clinical trials, case controls, case reports, and case series. Results: 11 articles were involved and predominantly included procedures observed during approximately 12 weeks with a distribution of three sessions per week, each session being 30–60 min of aerobic exercise; additionally, the exercise grades were typically completed at a percentage of subjects’ maximum heart rates. The meta-analyses displayed a significant effect on the domains of time (R-R interval, SDNN, rMSSD), frequency (HF ms2, HF (n.u.), LF/HF), and the non-linear index (SD1). Conclusions: Chronic exposure to exercise influences heart rate variability in children and adolescents affected by obesity by elevating the variability and parasympathetic activity and improving the sympathetic-vagal balance. Exercises should be recommended for the improvement of cardiac autonomic modulation to prevent the likelihood of further chronic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; obesity; autonomic nervous system; heart rate; physical fitness; disease prevention exercise; obesity; autonomic nervous system; heart rate; physical fitness; disease prevention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dias, R.M.; Moraes, Í.A.P.; Dantas, M.T.A.P.; Fernani, D.C.G.L.; Fontes, A.M.G.G.; Silveira, A.C.; Barnabé, V.; Fernandes, M.; Martinelli, P.M.; Monteiro, C.B.M.; Garner, D.M.; Abreu, L.C.; Silva, T.D. Influence of Chronic Exposure to Exercise on Heart Rate Variability in Children and Adolescents Affected by Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111065

AMA Style

Dias RM, Moraes ÍAP, Dantas MTAP, Fernani DCGL, Fontes AMGG, Silveira AC, Barnabé V, Fernandes M, Martinelli PM, Monteiro CBM, Garner DM, Abreu LC, Silva TD. Influence of Chronic Exposure to Exercise on Heart Rate Variability in Children and Adolescents Affected by Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21):11065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111065

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dias, Rodrigo M., Íbis A.P. Moraes, Maria T.A.P. Dantas, Deborah C.G.L. Fernani, Anne M.G.G. Fontes, Ana C. Silveira, Viviani Barnabé, Marcelo Fernandes, Patrícia M. Martinelli, Carlos B.M. Monteiro, David M. Garner, Luiz C. Abreu, and Talita D. Silva 2021. "Influence of Chronic Exposure to Exercise on Heart Rate Variability in Children and Adolescents Affected by Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 21: 11065. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111065

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