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Article

Perception of Threat and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Expatriates in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia

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Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tabuk, P.O. Box 741, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Addiction and Neuroscience Research Unit, Health Science Campus, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ryuichi Ohta and Daisuke Son
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126650
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
In the first few months of the pandemic, Makkah region reported the highest number of COVID-19 cases among all regions in Saudi Arabia. More than 80% of these reported cases were non-Saudi residents. In this study, we evaluated the perceived threat from and psychological impact of COVID-19 among non-Saudi residents of Makkah region. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected using a standardized self-report questionnaire. A total of 292 expatriates were included in the study, the majority of whom were non-Arabic speakers. The prevalence of self-reported depression was nearly 40%, anxiety was 32%, and stress was 43%. The findings indicated variability in the prevalence of psychological symptoms among expatriates from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, work environment and perceived threat were strong predictors of psychological disorders. This suggested that the perceived threat from and psychological burden of COVID-19 among non-Saudis in Makkah region is substantial. Future research should investigate the reasons behind these variations in the psychological impact of the pandemic among different ethnic groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; expatriates; psychological disorders; Saudi Arabia; DASS-21; BIP-Q5 COVID-19; expatriates; psychological disorders; Saudi Arabia; DASS-21; BIP-Q5
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MDPI and ACS Style

Algarni, M.A.; Alzahrani, M.S.; Alatawi, Y.; Alasmari, R.A.; Alsaab, H.O.; Almalki, A.H.; Alhifany, A.A.; Althobaiti, Y.S. Perception of Threat and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Expatriates in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6650. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126650

AMA Style

Algarni MA, Alzahrani MS, Alatawi Y, Alasmari RA, Alsaab HO, Almalki AH, Alhifany AA, Althobaiti YS. Perception of Threat and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Expatriates in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6650. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126650

Chicago/Turabian Style

Algarni, Majed A., Mohammad S. Alzahrani, Yasser Alatawi, Raghad A. Alasmari, Hashem O. Alsaab, Atiah H. Almalki, Abdullah A. Alhifany, and Yusuf S. Althobaiti 2021. "Perception of Threat and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Expatriates in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6650. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126650

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