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Article

Phase Angle Is a Marker of Muscle Quantity and Strength in Overweight/Obese Former Athletes

1
Bioperformance & Nutrition Research Unit, Bettery S.A., 2740-262 Lisbon, Portugal
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CIDEFES-Universidade Lusófona, 1749-024 Lisboa, Portugal
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Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-688 Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal
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Department for Life Quality Studies, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 40126 Rimini, Italy
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Neuromuscular Research Lab, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-688 Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal
6
Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana da Universidade de Lisboa, 1499-002 Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Javier Chirosa Ríos, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga and Pedro Delgado-Floody
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6649; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126649
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 17 June 2021 / Accepted: 20 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Quality Index and Health)
Background: An increasing body of evidence indicates that the phase angle (PhA) can be applied as a marker of nutritional status, disease prognosis, and mortality probability. Still, it is not known whether PhA can be used as an indicator of muscular quantity and strength and maximal aerobic capacity in overweight/obese former highly active individuals, an understudied population. This study aimed to analyze the association between PhA with skeletal muscle mass, maximal isometric strength, and maximal aerobic capacity through VO2max, in overweight/obese and inactive former athletes. Methods: Cross-sectional information of 94 (62 males) former adult athletes (age: 43.1 ± 9.4 years old; body mass index: 31.4 ± 4.8 kg/m2) taking part in a weight-loss clinical trial was analyzed. Total fat and fat-free mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while skeletal muscle mass was predicted from appendicular lean soft tissue. Values for upper- and lower-body maximal isometric strength were assessed by handgrip and leg press dynamometry. VO2max was determined by indirect calorimetry through a graded exercise test performed on a treadmill. Results: PhA was associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.564, p < 0.001), upper-body strength (r = 0.556, p < 0.001), lower-body strength (r = 0.422, p < 0.001), and VO2max (r = 0.328, p = 0.013). These relationships remained significant for skeletal muscle mass (β = 2.158, p = 0.001), maximal isometric strength (upper-body: β = 2.846, p = 0.012; low-er-body: β = 24.209, p = 0.041) after adjusting for age, sex, and fat mass but not for VO2max (β = −0.163, p = 0.098). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that former athletes with higher values of PhA exhibited greater muscle mass and strength, despite sex, age, and body composition, which suggests that this simple raw BI parameter can be utilized as an indicator of muscle quantity and functionality in overweight/obese former athletes. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; bioelectrical impedance; skeletal muscle; strength; phase angle body composition; bioelectrical impedance; skeletal muscle; strength; phase angle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Matias, C.N.; Campa, F.; Nunes, C.L.; Francisco, R.; Jesus, F.; Cardoso, M.; Valamatos, M.J.; Homens, P.M.; Sardinha, L.B.; Martins, P.; Minderico, C.; Silva, A.M. Phase Angle Is a Marker of Muscle Quantity and Strength in Overweight/Obese Former Athletes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6649. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126649

AMA Style

Matias CN, Campa F, Nunes CL, Francisco R, Jesus F, Cardoso M, Valamatos MJ, Homens PM, Sardinha LB, Martins P, Minderico C, Silva AM. Phase Angle Is a Marker of Muscle Quantity and Strength in Overweight/Obese Former Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6649. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126649

Chicago/Turabian Style

Matias, Catarina N., Francesco Campa, Catarina L. Nunes, Rubén Francisco, Filipe Jesus, Miguel Cardoso, Maria J. Valamatos, Pedro M. Homens, Luís B. Sardinha, Paulo Martins, Cláudia Minderico, and Analiza M. Silva 2021. "Phase Angle Is a Marker of Muscle Quantity and Strength in Overweight/Obese Former Athletes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6649. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126649

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