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Article

Determinants of Multidimensional and Physical Frailty and Their Individual Components: Interactions between Frailty Deficits

1
Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-701 Poznan, Poland
2
Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, 45-758 Opole, Poland
3
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, University of Opole, 45-401 Opole, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228656
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 21 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Management of Frailty)
Purpose: To identify the interrelations among determinants of multidimensional frailty, physical frailty, and their individual components. Methods: A group of 1024 community-dwelling people older than 65 years completed questionnaires regarding: multidimensional frailty (Tilburg Frailty Indicator, TFI) and physical frailty (FRAIL scale), and common frailty risk factors. Results: Multidimensional frailty was recognized in 559 subjects (54.6%) and determined by 13 factors (R2 = 0.21 in logistic regression). After incorporating TFI components to the models, the majority of previous risk factors became non-essential, and the frailty deficits mainly determined each other with R2 ranging between 0.07–0.67. Physical frailty and non-robust status (i.e., either physical frailty or pre-frailty) were recognized in 64 (6.3%) and 542 (52.9%) participants, and were determined by 5 factors (R2 = 0.33) and 11 factors (R2 = 0.34), respectively. Associations between the frailty deficits were detected within and between different dimensions (i.e., physical, psychological and social); the physical domain was mainly related to the psychological one which in turn was additionally associated with the social one. Conclusion: Frailty is the accumulation of deficits and is determined by factors other than the determinants of the individual deficits. The associations between deficits coming from various dimensions of human functioning presumably amplify their effects and accelerate frailty development. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; non-robust; FRAIL scale; Tilburg Frailty Indicator; determinants frailty; non-robust; FRAIL scale; Tilburg Frailty Indicator; determinants
MDPI and ACS Style

Sacha, M.; Sacha, J.; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K. Determinants of Multidimensional and Physical Frailty and Their Individual Components: Interactions between Frailty Deficits. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228656

AMA Style

Sacha M, Sacha J, Wieczorowska-Tobis K. Determinants of Multidimensional and Physical Frailty and Their Individual Components: Interactions between Frailty Deficits. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(22):8656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228656

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sacha, Magdalena, Jerzy Sacha, and Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis. 2020. "Determinants of Multidimensional and Physical Frailty and Their Individual Components: Interactions between Frailty Deficits" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 22: 8656. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228656

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