In recent years, the construction and development of highways in turfy swamp areas has been very common. When highways pass through turfy swamps, they can change the local soil, vegetation and hydrological environment, but the impact on soil microorganisms is unclear. We studied the impact of highways on soil microbial communities and diversity in three turfy swamps. Soil samples were collected in the affected area (distance from the expressway 10 m) and control area (distance from the expressway 500–1000 m), and the soil properties, heavy metal content and microbial composition were measured. Subsequent statistical analysis showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, density and especially water table (WT) are the main driving forces affecting the composition of microorganisms. The WT and density can also be used to predict the change trend of the ratio of proteobacteria to acid bacteria, reflecting the soil nutrient status. In general, the composition of soil microorganisms in turfy swamp is mainly affected by road drainage and heavy metal emissions. This research provides new insights into the impact of highways on turfy swamps from the perspective of bacterial diversity and community composition, and it also provides a basis for the restoration of the wetland ecological environment.
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