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Open AccessArticle

Cognitive Assessment of Older People: Do Sensory Function and Frailty Matter?

by 1,2,* and 1,2
1
Jockey Club Institute of Ageing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040662
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatrics Syndromes Prevention)
Background: To examine the associations of visual and hearing functions, and frailty with subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a community primary care pilot project of older people aged 60 years and over. Methods: The study was conducted in 24 community centers. A total of 1949 community-dwelling older people aged between 60–97 years were evaluated for which detailed information regarding socio-demographics, lifestyle, and clinical factors were documented at baseline and an average of 12 months later. SMCs were assessed using the 5-item Abbreviated Memory Inventory for the Chinese (AMIC). Visual and hearing functions were measured with two separate single questions. Frailty was assessed using a simple frailty question (FRAIL). Results: At baseline, 1685 (74.6%) participants had reported at least 3 SMCs (AMIC score ≥ 3). Of the 573 participants without / with 1–2 SMCs (AMIC score = 0–2) at baseline, 75 had incomplete data regarding SMCs and 190 developed at least 3 SMCs after 12 months. After adjustments for age, sex, marital status, educational level, hypertension, and diabetes at baseline, poor vision (OR 2.2 95% CI 1.8–2.7), poor hearing (OR 2.2 95% CI 1.8–2.8), and frailty (OR 4.6 95% CI 3.1–6.7) at baseline were each significantly associated with an increased risk of at least 3 SMCs at follow-up. After a further adjustment for baseline SMCs, the associations remained significant. Similar results were obtained when incident SMCs and improvement in subjective memory were used as the outcome variables; and Conclusions: In the care of older people, detection of sensory impairment and frailty through screening may allow formulation of strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive decline. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognitive impairment; cognitive assessment; sensory function; vision; hearing; frailty; ageing cognitive impairment; cognitive assessment; sensory function; vision; hearing; frailty; ageing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, R.; Woo, J. Cognitive Assessment of Older People: Do Sensory Function and Frailty Matter? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 662. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040662

AMA Style

Yu R, Woo J. Cognitive Assessment of Older People: Do Sensory Function and Frailty Matter? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(4):662. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040662

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean. 2019. "Cognitive Assessment of Older People: Do Sensory Function and Frailty Matter?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 4: 662. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040662

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