Next Article in Journal
The Prevalence of Tobacco and E-Cigarette Use in Poland: A 2019 Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Solid Particle Number (SPN) Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) in the European Legislation: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pesticide Application Practices and Knowledge among Small-Scale Local Rice Growers and Communities in Rwanda: A Cross-Sectional Study
Open AccessReview

Sex/Gender Differences in the Association between Residential Green Space and Self-Rated Health—A Sex/Gender-Focused Systematic Review

by Gabriele Bolte 1,2,*, Sarah Nanninga 1,2 and Lisa Dandolo 1,2 on behalf of the INGER Study Group
1
Department of Social Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
2
Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234818
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
Though sex/gender is an important social determinant of health, sex/gender inequalities have not been considered comprehensively in environmental health research thus far. The aim of this systematic review was to clarify whether sex/gender theoretical concepts were addressed in studies on the impact of residential green space on self-rated health and whether effect modification by sex/gender was observed. Three electronic databases were searched to identify epidemiological studies on perceived or objective residential green/blue space and self-rated health. Necessary for study inclusion was mentioning at least one keyword for sex/gender in title or abstract, adult study participants and data on self-rated health and on availability and/or use of green/blue spaces. Decisive for study inclusion was consideration of sex/gender differences in the impact of perceived or objective residential green/blue spaces on self-rated health in the analysis and presentation of results. Seven studies were included. They presented an overall positive impact of green space on self-rated health. No consistent sex/gender differences in the impact of green space on self-rated health were found in these studies. However, all studies used a binary operationalization male/female without further theoretical foundation. Research quality could be enhanced by integrating sex/gender-theoretical concepts into study design and interpretation of results. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender; sex; self-rated health; green space; greenness; park; environment; nature; blue space gender; sex; self-rated health; green space; greenness; park; environment; nature; blue space
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bolte, G.; Nanninga, S.; Dandolo, L., on behalf of the INGER Study Group; Sex/Gender Differences in the Association between Residential Green Space and Self-Rated Health—A Sex/Gender-Focused Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4818.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop