Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Impact of School-Based Greenness on Mental Health Among Adolescent Students in Ontario, Canada
Previous Article in Journal
The Impact of Liquor Restrictions on Serious Assaults across Queensland, Australia
Open AccessArticle

Cluster Analysis of Residential Personal Exposure to ELF Magnetic Field in Children: Effect of Environmental Variables

1
CNR IEIIT—Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
EDF Electricité de France, 75017 Paris, France
3
Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria DEIB, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224363
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 4 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
Personal exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF MF) in children is a very timely topic. We applied cluster analysis to 24 h indoor personal exposures of 884 children in France to identify possible common patterns of exposures. We investigated how electric networks near child home and other variables potentially affecting residential exposure, such as indoor sources of ELF MF, the age and type of the residence and family size, characterized the magnetic field exposure patterns. We identified three indoor personal exposure patterns: children living near overhead lines of high (63–150 kV), extra-high (225 kV) and ultra-high voltage (400 kV) were characterized by the highest exposures; children living near underground networks of low (400 V) and mid voltage (20 kV) and substations (20 kV/400 V) were characterized by mid exposures; children living far from electric networks had the lowest level of exposure. The harmonic component was not relevant in discriminating the exposure patterns, unlike the 50 Hz or broadband (40–800 Hz) component. Children using electric heating appliances, or living in big buildings or in larger families had generally a higher level of personal indoor exposure. Instead, the age of the residence was not relevant in differentiating the exposure patterns. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; ELF MF; magnetic field; residential exposure; cluster analysis; machine learning; electric heating; residence age; residence type; family size children; ELF MF; magnetic field; residential exposure; cluster analysis; machine learning; electric heating; residence age; residence type; family size
MDPI and ACS Style

Tognola, G.; Chiaramello, E.; Bonato, M.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Fiocchi, S.; Parazzini, M.; Ravazzani, P. Cluster Analysis of Residential Personal Exposure to ELF Magnetic Field in Children: Effect of Environmental Variables. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4363.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop