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Article

Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Self-Esteem and Symptoms of Body-Dysmorphic Disorders among Young Adults

1
Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 6516848741, Iran
2
Department of Educational Sciences, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz 7198774731, Iran
3
Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, University of Basel, Psychiatric Clinics, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
4
Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6719851115, Iran
5
Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6719851115, Iran
6
Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174675731, Iran
7
Division of Sport Science, Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4236; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214236
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Background: Beauty and an attractive body shape are particularly important during early adulthood, as both are related to greater mating success, positive social feedback, and higher self-esteem. The media may further influence common features of beauty. We tested whether higher body-dysmorphic disorder (BDD) scores were associated with sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Additionally, we expected that a link between higher BDD scores and higher perceived media pressure would be mediated by lower self-esteem (SE). Method: 350 young Iranian adults (mean age: 24.17 years; 76.9% females) took part in the study. Participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, sociocultural attitudes towards appearances, and SE, while experts rated participants for symptoms of body dysmorphic disorders. Results: Higher BDD scores were associated with higher scores for sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, while SE was not associated with BDD or sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Higher scores for sociocultural attitudes towards appearance and media pressure predicted higher BDD scores, while SE had no influence. Conclusion: Among young Iranian adults, sociocultural attitudes towards appearances and BDD scores, as rated by experts’, were related, while SE was not. The shared variance between symptoms of BDD and sociocultural attitudes towards appearance was low, suggesting that other factors such as mating and career concerns together with social feedback might be more important in explaining symptoms of body dysmorphic disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: body shape; body dysmorphic disorder; self-esteem; sociocultural attitude towards appearances body shape; body dysmorphic disorder; self-esteem; sociocultural attitude towards appearances
MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmadpanah, M.; Arji, M.; Arji, J.; Haghighi, M.; Jahangard, L.; Sadeghi Bahmani, D.; Brand, S. Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Self-Esteem and Symptoms of Body-Dysmorphic Disorders among Young Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214236

AMA Style

Ahmadpanah M, Arji M, Arji J, Haghighi M, Jahangard L, Sadeghi Bahmani D, Brand S. Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Self-Esteem and Symptoms of Body-Dysmorphic Disorders among Young Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21):4236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214236

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmadpanah, Mohammad, Mona Arji, Jaleh Arji, Mohammad Haghighi, Leila Jahangard, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, and Serge Brand. 2019. "Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Self-Esteem and Symptoms of Body-Dysmorphic Disorders among Young Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 21: 4236. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214236

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