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Open AccessArticle

Mapping the Celebrity Endorsement of Branded Food and Beverage Products and Marketing Campaigns in the United States, 1990–2017

1
Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Advanced Research Computing, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061; USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193743
Received: 5 August 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 1 October 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
Celebrity endorsement used to promote energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage products may contribute to poor dietary habits. This study examined celebrity endorsement of branded food and beverage products and marketing campaigns in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2017. Celebrity endorsement data were collected from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Interactive data visualizations were created for the endorsement relationships between celebrities, companies and products whose nutritional profiles were compared with the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Smart Snacks Standards. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between celebrities’ demographic profiles and the nutritional profiles of products. Results showed 542 celebrities were associated with 732 endorsements representing 120 brands of 59 companies across 10 food and beverage categories. Two thirds (67.2%; n = 80) of the brands represented EDNP products that did not align with the USDA’s Smart Snacks Standards. Logistic regression analysis indicated that Millennial (p = 0.008) and male celebrities (p = 0.041) were more likely to endorse EDNP products than Generation Z teen and female celebrities, respectively. No statistical significance was observed for celebrities of other demographic profiles. This study may inform future policies and actions of the US government, industry, researchers and consumer advocacy organizations to use celebrity endorsement to promote healthy food environments for Americans. View Full-Text
Keywords: celebrity endorsement; food and beverage products; Smart Snacks Standards; United States celebrity endorsement; food and beverage products; Smart Snacks Standards; United States
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, M.; Rajamohan, S.; Hedrick, V.; Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, S.; Abidi, F.; Polys, N.; Kraak, V. Mapping the Celebrity Endorsement of Branded Food and Beverage Products and Marketing Campaigns in the United States, 1990–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3743. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193743

AMA Style

Zhou M, Rajamohan S, Hedrick V, Rincón-Gallardo Patiño S, Abidi F, Polys N, Kraak V. Mapping the Celebrity Endorsement of Branded Food and Beverage Products and Marketing Campaigns in the United States, 1990–2017. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3743. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193743

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Mi; Rajamohan, Srijith; Hedrick, Valisa; Rincón-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Abidi, Faiz; Polys, Nicholas; Kraak, Vivica. 2019. "Mapping the Celebrity Endorsement of Branded Food and Beverage Products and Marketing Campaigns in the United States, 1990–2017" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 19: 3743. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193743

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