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Open AccessArticle

Relaxation in the Chinese Hukou System: Effects on Psychosocial Wellbeing of Children Affected by Migration

1
Department of Social Medicine, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Centre for Global Health, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
3
Institute for Global Health, University College London, London WC1N1EH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193744
Received: 19 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
The hukou household registration system in China is being relaxed in small and medium-sized cities, which makes it easier for migrant worker parents to take their children with them to cities for work. The aim of this study was determine the potential impact on psychological well-being of this change for children by migration and hukou status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using the Chinese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in urban and migrant schools in the capital, Hangzhou, and in schools in two rural counties of Zhejiang Province. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 2965 children, aged 10 to 15: 867 urban children with urban hukou, 625 migrant children with rural hukou, 695 rural children with rural hukou living with parents, and 778 left behind children. The crude SDQ scores showed that children directly affected by migration (migrant children and left behind children) were most at risk of psychological problems; urban and rural children living with their parents in their accustomed environment were least vulnerable. After adjustment for confounders, migrant children were the most vulnerable to psychological problems. Given that migration with children is on the increase, efforts should be made to improve conditions in urban areas for these children, and especially to ensure access to urban public schools. View Full-Text
Keywords: migration; China; children; psychological well-being migration; China; children; psychological well-being
MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, J.; Jiang, M.; Li, L.; Hesketh, T. Relaxation in the Chinese Hukou System: Effects on Psychosocial Wellbeing of Children Affected by Migration. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193744

AMA Style

Lu J, Jiang M, Li L, Hesketh T. Relaxation in the Chinese Hukou System: Effects on Psychosocial Wellbeing of Children Affected by Migration. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lu, Jingjing; Jiang, Minmin; Li, Lu; Hesketh, Therese. 2019. "Relaxation in the Chinese Hukou System: Effects on Psychosocial Wellbeing of Children Affected by Migration" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 19: 3744. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193744

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