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Open AccessArticle

UK Postal Delivery Workers’ Occupational Sun Safety: Using Behavior Change Theories to Identify Intervention Pathways

1
Centre for Organizational Health and Development, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, B Floor, Yang Fujia Building, Jubilee Campus, Wollaton Road, Nottingham NG8 1BB, UK
2
Management School, University of Sheffield and Loughborough University, Sheffield, S10 1FL, UK
3
ESSCA School of Management and School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
4
Royal Mail Group, Slough, SL3 8AQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193712
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar UV Radiation: A Neglected Occupational Risk)
Postal delivery workers have substantial sun exposure. In the United Kingdom (UK) a high proportion of workers possesses a sun sensitive skin type. This population is at elevated risk for skin cancer, yet uptake of sun safety practices is low. Studies are needed to identify the underlying factors that contribute to the uptake of occupational sun safety practices that may be targeted during behavior change interventions. This study integrated the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Transtheoretical Model’s stages of change (SoC) as guiding frameworks to identify underlying beliefs that influence UK postal delivery workers’ uptake of occupational sun safety practices. Thirty-four workers participated in semi-structured interviews that used the SoC to establish current receptiveness to and adoption of two sun safety practices (using sunscreen of at least sun protection factor (SPF) 30 on exposed skin and wearing a wide-brimmed hat when working outdoors in the summer). Beliefs underlying current practices were elicited in accordance with the TPB and stratified by the SoC. For sunscreen use and wearing a wide-brimmed hat, 64% and 3% of participants were in the action or maintenance SoC, respectively. Behavioral and control beliefs differed by SoC, with those in the earlier stages more likely than those in the latter stages to report negative attitudes to, and difficulty enacting, sun safety practices. Normative beliefs concerning the views of colleagues and employers towards sunscreen were relatively consistent across the SoC. This study highlights the need for tailored and targeted behavior change interventions. The SoC-stratified accounts of the influence of TPB components on behavior provide a basis for bespoke interventions that reflect inter-individual and inter-practice differences in their working mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: postal delivery workers; Theory of Planned Behavior; Transtheoretical Model; stage of change; sun safety; solar radiation postal delivery workers; Theory of Planned Behavior; Transtheoretical Model; stage of change; sun safety; solar radiation
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Houdmont, J.; Randall, R.; Cheyne, A.; Davis, S.; Evans, H.; Faichney, J. UK Postal Delivery Workers’ Occupational Sun Safety: Using Behavior Change Theories to Identify Intervention Pathways. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3712.

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