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Open AccessArticle

Subgingival Microbiota of Mexicans with Type 2 Diabetes with Different Periodontal and Metabolic Conditions

1
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City 04360, Mexico
2
The Academic Area of Dentistry in the Health Sciences Institute, the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, Pachuca 42039, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173184
Received: 13 July 2019 / Revised: 23 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Background: Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) and Periodontitis are major inflammatory diseases. However, not much is known about the specific subgingival microbiota in Mexicans with diabetes and metabolic dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to describe the subgingival microbiota of Mexicans with T2D and the different periodontal and metabolic conditions, through “Checkerboard” DNA–DNA hybridization. Methods: Subjects were divided into two groups—periodontal-health (PH) (PH_non-T2D; n = 59, PH_T2D; n = 14) and generalized-periodontitis (GP) (GP_non-T2D; n = 67, GP_T2D; n = 38). Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and serum levels of glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1c), total-lipids, triglycerides, total-cholesterol, high-density-lipids, and low-density-lipids were measured for the T2D individuals. Subgingival microbial identification was processed for 40 species through DNA-probes. Results: Subjects with T2D harbored significantly higher mean total levels (PH: p < 0.001, and GP_NS), a lower proportion of “red” complex (GP: p < 0.01), a higher proportion of “yellow” (GP; p < 0.001), and “orange” (GP; p < 0.01) complex than the non-T2D. GP_T2D individuals exhibited a greater proportion of putative-species—Campylobacter gracilis and S. constellatus (p < 0.001), and Parvimonas micra and Prevotella nigrescens (p < 0.01), than GP_non-T2D. T2D individuals with HbA1c > 8% had presented significantly higher mean pocket-depth and higher levels of G. morbillorum (p < 0.05) and those with obesity or dyslipidemia harbored higher levels, prevalence, or proportion of Streptococcus sp., Actinomyces sp., and Capnocytophaga sp. Conclusions: T2D individuals harbored a particular microbial profile different to non-T2D microbiota. Metabolic control was related to dysbiosis of microbiota—HbA1c>8% related to periodontitis and obesity or dyslipidemia with the predominance of saccharolytic bacteria, irrespective of their periodontal condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; periodontitis; subgingival microbiota; “Checkerboard” DNA–DNA hybridization; obesity; glycemic poor control; dyslipidemia Type 2 diabetes mellitus; periodontitis; subgingival microbiota; “Checkerboard” DNA–DNA hybridization; obesity; glycemic poor control; dyslipidemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Hernández, A.-P.; Márquez-Corona, M.d.L.; Pontigo-Loyola, A.P.; Medina-Solís, C.E.; Ximenez-Fyvie, L.-A. Subgingival Microbiota of Mexicans with Type 2 Diabetes with Different Periodontal and Metabolic Conditions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173184

AMA Style

Rodríguez-Hernández A-P, Márquez-Corona MdL, Pontigo-Loyola AP, Medina-Solís CE, Ximenez-Fyvie L-A. Subgingival Microbiota of Mexicans with Type 2 Diabetes with Different Periodontal and Metabolic Conditions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(17):3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Patricia; Márquez-Corona, María d.L.; Pontigo-Loyola, América P.; Medina-Solís, Carlo E.; Ximenez-Fyvie, Laurie-Ann. 2019. "Subgingival Microbiota of Mexicans with Type 2 Diabetes with Different Periodontal and Metabolic Conditions" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 17: 3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173184

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