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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1946;

Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: A Multi-Centre Case Control Study among North Indian Women

Centre for Chronic Disease Control, Centre for Chronic Conditions and Injures, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon 122002, India
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India
Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon 122002, India
Guru Angad Dev Veterinay and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, India
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Claudia Nance Rollins Building, 1518 Clifton Road, CNR 7040H, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Public Health Foundation of India, Gurgaon 122002, India
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Centre for Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda 151001, India
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India
Indian School of Business, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, Punjab 160062, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer and Nutrition)
Full-Text   |   PDF [299 KB, uploaded 6 September 2018]


Evidence from India, a country with unique and distinct food intake patterns often characterized by lifelong adherence, may offer important insight into the role of diet in breast cancer etiology. We evaluated the association between Indian dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in the North Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Eligible cases were women 30–69 years of age, with newly diagnosed, biopsy-confirmed breast cancer recruited from hospitals or population-based cancer registries. Controls (hospital- or population-based) were frequency matched to the cases on age and region (Punjab or Haryana). Information about diet, lifestyle, reproductive and socio-demographic factors was collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. All participants were characterized as non-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians (those who consumed no animal products except dairy) or lacto-ovo-vegetarians (persons whose diet also included eggs). The study population included 400 breast cancer cases and 354 controls. Most (62%) were lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Breast cancer risk was lower in lacto-ovo-vegetarians compared to both non-vegetarians and lacto-vegetarians with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.6 (0.3–0.9) and 0.4 (0.3–0.7), respectively. The unexpected difference between lacto-ovo-vegetarian and lacto-vegetarian dietary patterns could be due to egg-consumption patterns which requires confirmation and further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; diet; vegetarian; egg; India breast cancer; diet; vegetarian; egg; India
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shridhar, K.; Singh, G.; Dey, S.; Singh Dhatt, S.; Paul Singh Gill, J.; Goodman, M.; Samar Magsumbol, M.; Pearce, N.; Singh, S.; Singh, A.; Singh, P.; Singh Thakur, J.; Kaur Dhillon, P. Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: A Multi-Centre Case Control Study among North Indian Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1946.

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