Next Article in Journal
Associations among Elder Abuse, Depression and PTSD in South Korean Older Adults
Next Article in Special Issue
Lead Poisoning and the Dangers of Pragmatism
Previous Article in Journal
Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: A Multi-Centre Case Control Study among North Indian Women
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial Hurdle Models for Predicting the Number of Children with Lead Poisoning
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091947

Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children

1
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Dhaka Community Hospital, Dhaka 1217, Bangladesh
4
Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1316 KB, uploaded 6 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Previous evaluations of a birth cohort in the Munshiganj District of Bangladesh had found that over 85% of 397 children aged 2–3 years had blood lead concentrations above the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s reference level of 5 μg/dL. Studies in urban areas of Bangladesh have found elevated levels of lead in the air due to industries and remaining contamination from the historic use of leaded gasoline. Sources of lead in rural areas of Bangladesh remain unknown. We conducted air sampling in both residential and industrial sites in Munshiganj to determine whether children are exposed to elevated lead concentrations in the air and study the association between the children’s blood lead levels and sampled air lead concentrations. Residential and industrial air samples in Munshiganj were found to have elevated lead concentrations (mean 1.22 μg/m3) but were not found to be associated with the observed blood lead concentrations. Lead in air is an important environmental health exposure risk to the for children in Munshiganj, and further research may shed light on specific sources to inform exposure prevention and mitigation programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; exposure; Bangladesh; air pollution lead; exposure; Bangladesh; air pollution
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Woo, M.K.; Young, E.S.; Mostofa, M.G.; Afroz, S.; Sharif Ibne Hasan, M.O.; Quamruzzaman, Q.; Bellinger, D.C.; Christiani, D.C.; Mazumdar, M. Lead in Air in Bangladesh: Exposure in a Rural Community with Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations among Young Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1947.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top