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Open AccessArticle

How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis

by 1,2, 3, 1,4,* and 1,*
1
School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
2
Department of Immunization Program, Shaanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi’an 710054, China
3
School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059, Australia
4
Global Health Institute, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710061, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040608
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Evidence indicated that socio-environmental factors were associated with occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). This study explored the association of climate and socioeconomic factors with JE (2006–2014) in Shaanxi, China. JE data at the county level in Shaanxi were supplied by Shaanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the China Population Census in 2010 and statistical yearbooks. Meteorological data were acquired from the China Meteorological Administration. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to examine the association of meteorological and socioeconomic factors with JE. A total of 1197 JE cases were included in this study. Urbanization rate was inversely associated with JE incidence during the whole study period. Meteorological variables were significantly associated with JE incidence between 2012 and 2014. The excessive precipitation at lag of 1–2 months in the north of Shaanxi in June 2013 had an impact on the increase of local JE incidence. The spatial residual variations indicated that the whole study area had more stable risk (0.80–1.19 across all the counties) between 2012 and 2014 than earlier years. Public health interventions need to be implemented to reduce JE incidence, especially in rural areas and after extreme weather. View Full-Text
Keywords: Japanese encephalitis; meteorological variables; contingent risk factors; Shaanxi of China; geographical information system Japanese encephalitis; meteorological variables; contingent risk factors; Shaanxi of China; geographical information system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.; Hu, W.; Qi, X.; Zhuang, G. How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 608. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040608

AMA Style

Zhang S, Hu W, Qi X, Zhuang G. How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(4):608. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040608

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Shaobai; Hu, Wenbiao; Qi, Xin; Zhuang, Guihua. 2018. "How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China—A Bayesian Spatial Analysis" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 4: 608. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040608

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