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Retraction: Rabi, A.; Khader, Y.; Alkafajei, A.; Aqoulah, A.A. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2008, 5, 152–157
Open AccessArticle

Household Air Pollution Exposure and Influence of Lifestyle on Respiratory Health and Lung Function in Belizean Adults and Children: A Field Study

1
Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, 1A Natatorium, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
3
Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandra Cincinelli and Tania Martellini
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070643
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Quality and Health 2016)
Household air pollution (HAP) contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV)) is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male) and children (n = 23, 6 Male) from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection took place at free walk-in clinics. Investigators performed initial screenings and administered questionnaires on (1) sources of HAP exposure; (2) reported respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and (3) validated lifestyle questionnaires. Participants then performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO). There were no significant associations between HAP exposure and pulmonary function in adults. Increased exhaled CO was associated with a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1-s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) in children. Exposed adults experienced headaches, burning eyes, wheezing and phlegm production more frequently than unexposed adults. Adults who met PA guidelines were less likely to experience tightness and pressure in the chest compared to those not meeting guidelines. In conclusion, adults exposed to HAP experienced greater respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms, which may be attenuated by lifestyle modifications. View Full-Text
Keywords: pulmonary function; lifestyle; physical activity; indoor air pollution; household air; respiratory physiology; Belize; field study pulmonary function; lifestyle; physical activity; indoor air pollution; household air; respiratory physiology; Belize; field study
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Kurti, S.P.; Kurti, A.N.; Emerson, S.R.; Rosenkranz, R.R.; Smith, J.R.; Harms, C.A.; Rosenkranz, S.K. Household Air Pollution Exposure and Influence of Lifestyle on Respiratory Health and Lung Function in Belizean Adults and Children: A Field Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 643.

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