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Open AccessArticle

The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL) Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention

Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine Prevention Research Center, 720 Westview Drive SW, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Wholistic Stress Control Institute, Incorporated, 2545 Benjamin E Mays Drive, Atlanta, GA 30311, USA
University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Education, 1720 2nd Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
McKing Consulting Corporation, 2900 Chamblee Tucker Road, Building 10, Suite 100, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ronald L. Braithwaite, Mario De La Rosa and Selina A. Smith
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 948;
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 24 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Determinants of HIV, Substance Abuse and Addiction)
African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355) group, an immediate post-test (n = 228) group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110) group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001). Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008), and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001). Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011), marijuana (p = 0.011), illegal drugs (p = 0.002), and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003). Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women. View Full-Text
Keywords: health disparities; HIV/AIDS risk reduction; hepatitis risk reduction health disparities; HIV/AIDS risk reduction; hepatitis risk reduction
MDPI and ACS Style

Henry-Akintobi, T.; Laster, N.; Trotter, J.; Jacobs, D.; Johnson, T.; King Gordon, T.; Miller, A. The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL) Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 948.

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