Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis
AbstractClostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years), ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37). This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19). Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05). Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change. View Full-Text
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Lin, C.J.; Wade, T.J.; Hilborn, E.D. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6948-6964.
Lin CJ, Wade TJ, Hilborn ED. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(6):6948-6964.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lin, Cynthia J.; Wade, Timothy J.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D. 2015. "Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 6: 6948-6964.