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Open AccessArticle

Protein Hydrolysates from Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) Waste: In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Activities

1
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences. University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres, 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, Polo Universitario SS. Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
3
Veterinary Practitian, 98167 Messina, Italy
4
Zooprophylactic Institute of Sicily “A. Mirri”, 90129 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020086
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 26 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
Fish waste utilization to obtain protein hydrolysates has been demonstrated to be a useful strategy to face both environmental and economic impacts while obtaining high-value products with remarkable biological and nutritional properties. In the present study, protein hydrolysates obtained from anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (APH) by-products were assessed for their potential biological activities in both in vitro and in vivo models. The treatment with APH exerted a significant protection against LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells, decreasing the protein expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., COX-2) and inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB through IκB-α. Moreover, APH modulated the expression of iNOS, MnSOD and HO-1, thus decreasing the severity of oxidative stress. The supplementation of APH in the diet of ApoE knockout mice down-regulated the proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6) in both aorta and heart tissues, and modulated the expression of oxidative stress-related genes (Cu/ZnSod, MnSod, Cat, Gpx and Ho), indicating that APH can exert a beneficial role, having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The nutritional properties of APH, together with their biological activities herein reported, highlight the possibility of obtaining bioactive molecules from fish waste and encourage their use as potential nutraceuticals in food and pharmaceutical industries in the next future. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine organisms; anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus; bioactive peptides; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory marine organisms; anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus; bioactive peptides; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory
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Giannetto, A.; Esposito, E.; Lanza, M.; Oliva, S.; Riolo, K.; Di Pietro, S.; Abbate, J.M.; Briguglio, G.; Cassata, G.; Cicero, L.; Macrì, F. Protein Hydrolysates from Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) Waste: In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Activities. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 86.

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