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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060217

Cyanobacteria as Nanogold Factories: Chemical and Anti-Myocardial Infarction Properties of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Lyngbya majuscula

1
Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
2
Chemistry Department, College of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
3
Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
4
Pharmacology Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
5
Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
6
Biological Sciences Department, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
7
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria II)
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Abstract

To the best of our knowledge, cyanobacterial strains from the Arabian Gulf have never been investigated with respect to their potential for nanoparticle production. Lyngbya majuscula was isolated from the AlOqair area, Al-Ahsa Government, Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cyanobacterium was initially incubated with 1500 mg/mL of HAuCl4 for two days. The blue-green strain turned purple, which indicated the intracellular formation of gold nanoparticles. Prolonged incubation for over two months triggered the extracellular production of nanogold particles. UV-visible spectroscopy measurements indicated the presence of a resonance plasmon band at ~535 nm, whereas electron microscopy scanning indicated the presence of gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 41.7 ± 0.2 nm. The antioxidant and anti-myocardial infarction activities of the cyanobacterial extract, the gold nanoparticle solution, and a combination of both were investigated in animal models. Isoproterenol (100 mg/kg, SC (sub cutaneous)) was injected into experimental rats for three days to induce a state of myocardial infarction; then the animals were given cyanobacterial extract (200 mg/kg/day, IP (intra peritoneal)), gold nanoparticles (200 mg/kg/day, IP), ora mixture of both for 14 days. Cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and antioxidant enzymes were determined as indicators of myocardial infarction. The results showed that isoproterenol elevates ST and QT segments and increases heart rate and serum activities of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CP-MB), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT). It also reduces heart tissue content of glutathione peroxidase (GRx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the arterial pressure indices of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Gold nanoparticles alone or in combination with cyanobacterial extract produced an inhibitory effect on isoproterenol-induced changes in serum cardiac injury markers, ECG, arterial pressure indices, and antioxidant capabilities of the heart. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac injury; cardiac biomarkers; cyanobacteria; gold nanoparticles; myocardial infarction cardiac injury; cardiac biomarkers; cyanobacteria; gold nanoparticles; myocardial infarction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bakir, E.M.; Younis, N.S.; Mohamed, M.E.; El Semary, N.A. Cyanobacteria as Nanogold Factories: Chemical and Anti-Myocardial Infarction Properties of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by Lyngbya majuscula. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 217.

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