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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060197

Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study

1
Dietary Protein Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway
2
K. Halstensen AS, Box 103, 5399 Bekkjarvik, Norway
3
Hormone Laboratory, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
4
Nofima AS, P.B. 1425 Oasen, 5828 Bergen, Norway
5
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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Abstract

Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails) and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC), presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW), or placebo tablets (control) for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose regulation; overweight; obesity; cod; protein supplement; residual material glucose regulation; overweight; obesity; cod; protein supplement; residual material
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Vildmyren, I.; Cao, H.J.V.; Haug, L.B.; Valand, I.U.; Eng, Ø.; Oterhals, Å.; Austgulen, M.H.; Halstensen, A.; Mellgren, G.; Gudbrandsen, O.A. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 197.

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