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Open AccessArticle

Different Levels of Skin Whitening Activity among 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, Agarooligosaccharides, and Neoagarooligosaccharides

by 1,2,†, 3,†, 3, 3,* and 1,*
1
School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
Korean Medicine Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daegu 41062, Korea
3
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15100321
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Products for Health and Beauty)
3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a major monomeric constituent of red macroalgae (Rhodophyta), was recently reported to possess skin whitening activity. Moreover, AHG-containing oligosaccharides, such as agarooligosaccharides (AOSs) and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs), have various physiological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and skin moisturizing effects. In this study, AHG and NAOSs were produced from agarose by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by an endo-type β-agarase, an exo-type β-agarase, and a neoagarobiose hydrolase. In a cell proliferation assay, AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL concentrations did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward murine B16 melanoma cells or human epidermal melanocytes. In an in vitro skin whitening activity assay of AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 50 μg/mL, AHG showed the highest skin whitening activity in both murine B16 melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes; this activity was mediated by the inhibition of melanogenesis. Neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose also exhibited in vitro skin whitening activity, whereas neoagarobiose and AOSs with degrees of polymerization of 3 (agarotriose), 5 (agaropentaose), and 7 (agaroheptaose) did not. Therefore, AHG is responsible for the skin whitening activity of agar-derived sugars, and the structural differences among the AHG-containing oligosaccharides may be responsible for their different skin whitening activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose; agarooligosaccharides; neoagarooligosaccharides; skin whitening; α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; melanogenesis 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose; agarooligosaccharides; neoagarooligosaccharides; skin whitening; α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; melanogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.H.; Yun, E.J.; Yu, S.; Kim, K.H.; Kang, N.J. Different Levels of Skin Whitening Activity among 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, Agarooligosaccharides, and Neoagarooligosaccharides. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 321.

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