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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15100321

Different Levels of Skin Whitening Activity among 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, Agarooligosaccharides, and Neoagarooligosaccharides

1,2,†
,
3,†
,
3
,
3,* and 1,*
1
School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
Korean Medicine Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daegu 41062, Korea
3
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Products for Health and Beauty)
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Abstract

3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a major monomeric constituent of red macroalgae (Rhodophyta), was recently reported to possess skin whitening activity. Moreover, AHG-containing oligosaccharides, such as agarooligosaccharides (AOSs) and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs), have various physiological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and skin moisturizing effects. In this study, AHG and NAOSs were produced from agarose by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by an endo-type β-agarase, an exo-type β-agarase, and a neoagarobiose hydrolase. In a cell proliferation assay, AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL concentrations did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward murine B16 melanoma cells or human epidermal melanocytes. In an in vitro skin whitening activity assay of AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 50 μg/mL, AHG showed the highest skin whitening activity in both murine B16 melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes; this activity was mediated by the inhibition of melanogenesis. Neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose also exhibited in vitro skin whitening activity, whereas neoagarobiose and AOSs with degrees of polymerization of 3 (agarotriose), 5 (agaropentaose), and 7 (agaroheptaose) did not. Therefore, AHG is responsible for the skin whitening activity of agar-derived sugars, and the structural differences among the AHG-containing oligosaccharides may be responsible for their different skin whitening activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose; agarooligosaccharides; neoagarooligosaccharides; skin whitening; α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; melanogenesis 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose; agarooligosaccharides; neoagarooligosaccharides; skin whitening; α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; melanogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, J.H.; Yun, E.J.; Yu, S.; Kim, K.H.; Kang, N.J. Different Levels of Skin Whitening Activity among 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, Agarooligosaccharides, and Neoagarooligosaccharides. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 321.

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