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Current Issues in Molecular Biology is published by MDPI from Volume 43 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Caister Press.

Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 28, Issue 1 (October 2018) – 4 articles

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3223 KiB  
Review
A Review of CRISPR-Based Genome Editing: Survival, Evolution and Challenges
by Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Jamil Ahmad, Akhtar Rasool Asif, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Ali Akbar Bhuiyan, Abdelmotaleb Elokil, Xiaoyong Du, Changzhi Zhao, Xiangdong Liu and Shengsong Xie
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 28(1), 47-68; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.028.047 - 11 Feb 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Precise nucleic acid editing technologies have facilitated the research of cellular function and the development of novel therapeutics, especially the current programmable nucleases-based editing tools, such as the prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nucleases (Cas). As CRISPR-based therapies are advancing [...] Read more.
Precise nucleic acid editing technologies have facilitated the research of cellular function and the development of novel therapeutics, especially the current programmable nucleases-based editing tools, such as the prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nucleases (Cas). As CRISPR-based therapies are advancing toward human clinical trials, it is important to understand how natural genetic variation in the human population may affect the results of these trials and even patient safety. The development of "base-editing" technique allows the direct, stable transformation of target DNA base into an alternative in a programmable way, without DNA double strand cleavage or a donor template. Genome-editing techniques hold promises for the treatment of genetic disease at the DNA level by blocking the sequences associated with disease from producing disease-causing proteins. Currently, scientists can select the gene they want to modify, use the Cas9 as a "molecular cutter" to cut it out, and transform it into a more desirable version. In this review, we focus on the recent advances of CRISPR/Cas system by outlining the evolutionary and biotechnological implications of current strategies for improving the specificity and accuracy of these genome-editing technologies. Full article
723 KiB  
Review
PGC-1: The Energetic Regulator in Cardiac Metabolism
by Wencheng Di, Jianjun Lv, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Zhi Yang, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Yang Yang and Biao Xu
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 28(1), 29-46; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.028.029 - 01 Feb 2018
Cited by 93 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1s (PGC-1s) can induce the expression of several downstream genes that play pivotal roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism in the heart. Moreover, PGC-1 signaling pathways have also been reported to play a critical [...] Read more.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1s (PGC-1s) can induce the expression of several downstream genes that play pivotal roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism in the heart. Moreover, PGC-1 signaling pathways have also been reported to play a critical role in cardioprotection. Given the significance of PGC-1 coactivators, we summarize the current literature on the molecular mechanisms and roles of PGC-1s in cardiac metabolism. Thus, in this review, we first introduce the basic knowledge regarding PGC-1 signaling pathways. We then discuss their roles in heart metabolism. Moreover, we describe several significant treatments that target the PGC-1 signaling pathway. This review presents the significant roles of PGC-1s in cardiac metabolism and may contribute to the promotion of PGC-1 signaling pathway as a novel therapeutic target. Full article
755 KiB  
Review
Snapshots: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Lipid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease
by Tian Li, Shuai Jiang, Chenxi Lu, Wei Hu, Ting Ji, Mengzhen Han, Yang Yang and Zhenxiao Jin
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 28(1), 14-28; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.028.014 - 01 Feb 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction, specifically ER stress (ERS), is a pathophysiological response involved in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, suppression of ERS may improve [...] Read more.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction, specifically ER stress (ERS), is a pathophysiological response involved in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, suppression of ERS may improve lipid metabolic disorders and reduce cardiovascular risk. Herein, we focus on novel breakthroughs regarding the roles of ERS in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as the internal mechanisms of ERS and its status as a potential therapeutic target. This review highlights recent advances in ERS, the regulation of which might be helpful for both basic research and clinical drug design for lipid metabolic disorders and CVD. Full article
693 KiB  
Review
Translational Approaches In Cardiovascular Diseases by "Omics"
by Vahideh Rabani and Siamak Davani
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2018, 28(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.028.001 - 12 Sep 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 279
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite scientific and technical progress in risk prediction, diagnostics, prognostication and therapy of cardiovascular pathologies, new biomarkers and therapeutic targets remain the subject of intense research to reduce the burden of these [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite scientific and technical progress in risk prediction, diagnostics, prognostication and therapy of cardiovascular pathologies, new biomarkers and therapeutic targets remain the subject of intense research to reduce the burden of these diseases. High throughput analyses, termed "omics", are a promising avenue of research. These recently developed technical fields have revolutionized biological and medical research in a very short time. By their interdisciplinary nature, these new methods have already provided a wide vision of cell and tissue pathways and functions. Here, we review how these methods can help to discover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cardiovascular diseases. Full article
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