Next Article in Journal
Functions of Cationic Host Defense Peptides in Immunity
Next Article in Special Issue
1H and 15N NMR Analyses on Heparin, Heparan Sulfates and Related Monosaccharides Concerning the Chemical Exchange Regime of the N-Sulfo-Glucosamine Sulfamate Proton
Previous Article in Journal
Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo
Previous Article in Special Issue
Strategies to Overcome Heparins’ Low Oral Bioavailability
Open AccessReview

Heparin: Past, Present, and Future

1
SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, NY 12203, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield, MA 01201, USA
3
Rensselaer Polytechnic Insitute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Madalena M. M. Pinto and Maria Emília de Sousa
Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph9030038
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grand Celebration: 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of Heparin)
Heparin, the most widely used anticoagulant drug in the world today, remains an animal-derived product with the attendant risks of adulteration and contamination. A contamination crisis in 2007–2008 increased the impetus to provide non-animal-derived sources of heparin, produced under cGMP conditions. In addition, recent studies suggest that heparin may have significant antineoplastic activity, separate and distinct from its anticoagulant activity, while other studies indicate a role for heparin in treating inflammation, infertility, and infectious disease. A variety of strategies have been proposed to produce a bioengineered heparin. In this review, we discuss several of these strategies including microbial production, mammalian cell production, and chemoenzymatic modification. We also propose strategies for creating “designer” heparins and heparan-sulfates with various biochemical and physiological properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: heparin; heparan sulfate; heparin-like molecules; bioengineering; UFH; low molecular weight heparin; anti-inflammatory; antitumor; Chinese hamster ovary cells heparin; heparan sulfate; heparin-like molecules; bioengineering; UFH; low molecular weight heparin; anti-inflammatory; antitumor; Chinese hamster ovary cells
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Oduah, E.I.; Linhardt, R.J.; Sharfstein, S.T. Heparin: Past, Present, and Future. Pharmaceuticals 2016, 9, 38.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop