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Article

Muscle Co-Activation around the Knee during Different Walking Speeds in Healthy Females

1
Faculty of Physical Education-Abo Qir, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21913, Egypt
2
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory (LABIOMEP-UP), Faculty of Sport (CIFI2D), University of Porto, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Sports Training, Faculty of Sports Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030677
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 20 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors for Biomechanics Applications)
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in co-activation around the knee joint during different walking speeds in healthy females using the co-activation index. Ten healthy females (age: 21.20 ± 7.21 years, height: 164.00 ± 4.00 cm, mass: 60.60 ± 4.99 kg) participated in this study and performed three walking speeds (slow, normal, and fast). A Qualisys 11-camera motion analysis system sampling at a frequency of 200 Hz was synchronized with a Trigno EMG Wireless system operating at a 2000 Hz sampling frequency. A significant decrease in the co-activation index of thigh muscles was observed between the slow and fast, and between the normal and fast, walking speeds during all walking phases. A non-significant difference was observed between the slow and normal walking speeds during most walking phases, except the second double support phase, during which the difference was significant. A negative relationship was found between walking speed and the co-activation index of thigh muscles in all speeds during walking phases: first double support (r = −0.3386, p < 0.001), single support (r = −0.2144, p < 0.01), second double support (r = −0.4949, p < 0.001), and Swing (r = −0.1639, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated high variability of thigh muscle co-activation in healthy females during the different walking speeds, and a decrease in the co-activation of the thigh muscles with the increase of speed. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomechanics; agonist and antagonist muscle activation; knee; injury prevention; EMG biomechanics; agonist and antagonist muscle activation; knee; injury prevention; EMG
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akl, A.-R.; Gonçalves, P.; Fonseca, P.; Hassan, A.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.; Conceição, F. Muscle Co-Activation around the Knee during Different Walking Speeds in Healthy Females. Sensors 2021, 21, 677. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030677

AMA Style

Akl A-R, Gonçalves P, Fonseca P, Hassan A, Vilas-Boas JP, Conceição F. Muscle Co-Activation around the Knee during Different Walking Speeds in Healthy Females. Sensors. 2021; 21(3):677. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030677

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akl, Abdel-Rahman, Pedro Gonçalves, Pedro Fonseca, Amr Hassan, João P. Vilas-Boas, and Filipe Conceição. 2021. "Muscle Co-Activation around the Knee during Different Walking Speeds in Healthy Females" Sensors 21, no. 3: 677. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030677

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