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Article

Potential of Point-of-Care and At-Home Assessment of Immune Status via Rapid Cytokine Detection and Questionnaire-Based Anamnesis

1
Knowledge Management & Discovery Lab, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Department of Experimental Pediatrics, University Hospital, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christian Baumgartner and Andrea Facchinetti
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 4960; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154960
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 30 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of FAIR Data from Medical Sensors)
Monitoring the immune system’s status has emerged as an urgent demand in critical health conditions. The circulating cytokine levels in the blood reflect a thorough insight into the immune system status. Indeed, measuring one cytokine may deliver more information equivalent to detecting multiple diseases at a time. However, if the reported cytokine levels are interpreted with considering lifestyle and any comorbid health conditions for the individual, this will promote a more precise assessment of the immune status. Therefore, this study addresses the most recent advanced assays that deliver rapid, accurate measuring of the cytokine levels in human blood, focusing on add-on potentials for point-of-care (PoC) or personal at-home usage, and investigates existing health questionnaires as supportive assessment tools that collect all necessary information for the concrete analysis of the measured cytokine levels. We introduced a ten-dimensional featuring of cytokine measurement assays. We found 15 rapid cytokine assays with assay time less than 1 h; some could operate on unprocessed blood samples, while others are mature commercial products available in the market. In addition, we retrieved several health questionnaires that addressed various health conditions such as chronic diseases and psychological issues. Then, we present a machine learning-based solution to determine what makes the immune system fit. To this end, we discuss how to employ topic modeling for deriving the definition of immune fitness automatically from literature. Finally, we propose a prototype model to assess the fitness of the immune system through leveraging the derived definition of the immune fitness, the cytokine measurements delivered by a rapid PoC immunoassay, and the complementary information collected by the health questionnaire about other health factors. In conclusion, we discovered various advanced rapid cytokine detection technologies that are promising candidates for point-of-care or at-home usage; if paired with a health status questionnaire, the assessment of the immune system status becomes solid and we demonstrated potentials for promoting the assessment tool with data mining techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: rapid cytokine detection; immunoassay; health questionnaire; data mining; smartphone- based signal reader; lateral flow assay; point-of-care; at-home testing; topic modeling rapid cytokine detection; immunoassay; health questionnaire; data mining; smartphone- based signal reader; lateral flow assay; point-of-care; at-home testing; topic modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jamaludeen, N.; Beyer, C.; Billing, U.; Vogel, K.; Brunner-Weinzierl, M.; Spiliopoulou, M. Potential of Point-of-Care and At-Home Assessment of Immune Status via Rapid Cytokine Detection and Questionnaire-Based Anamnesis. Sensors 2021, 21, 4960. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154960

AMA Style

Jamaludeen N, Beyer C, Billing U, Vogel K, Brunner-Weinzierl M, Spiliopoulou M. Potential of Point-of-Care and At-Home Assessment of Immune Status via Rapid Cytokine Detection and Questionnaire-Based Anamnesis. Sensors. 2021; 21(15):4960. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154960

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jamaludeen, Noor, Christian Beyer, Ulrike Billing, Katrin Vogel, Monika Brunner-Weinzierl, and Myra Spiliopoulou. 2021. "Potential of Point-of-Care and At-Home Assessment of Immune Status via Rapid Cytokine Detection and Questionnaire-Based Anamnesis" Sensors 21, no. 15: 4960. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154960

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