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Article

Sub-Auroral and Mid-Latitude GNSS ROTI Performance during Solar Cycle 24 Geomagnetic Disturbed Periods: Towards Storm’s Early Sensing

1
Space Radio-Diagnostics Research Centre, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowski St. 2, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Aerospace Information Research Institute (AIR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), No 9 Dengzhuang South Road, Beijing 100094, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaume Sanz Subirana
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4325; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134325
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS in Atmospheric and Ionospheric Remote Sensing)
Geomagnetic storms—triggered by the interaction between Earth’s magnetosphere and interplanetary magnetic field, driven by solar activity—are important for many Earth-bound aspects of life. Serious events may impact the electroenergetic infrastructure, but even weaker storms generate noticeable irregularities in the density of ionospheric plasma. Ionosphere electron density gradients interact with electromagnetic radiation in the radiofrequency domain, affecting sub- and trans-ionospheric transmissions. The main objective of the manuscript is to find key features of the storm-induced plasma density behaviour irregularities in regard to the event’s magnitude and general geomagnetic conditions. We also aim to set the foundations for the mid-latitude ionospheric plasma density now-casting irregularities. In the manuscript, we calculate the GPS+GLONASS-derived rate of TEC (total electron content) index (ROTI) for the meridional sector of 10–20 E, covering the latitudes between 40 and 70 N. Such an approach reveals equatorward spread of the auroral TEC irregularities reaching down to mid-latitudes. We have assessed the ROTI performance for 57 moderate-to-severe storms that occurred during solar cycle 24 and analyzed their behaviors in regard to the geomagnetic conditions (described by Kp, Dst, AE, Sym-H and PC indices). View Full-Text
Keywords: ionosphere; geomagnetic storms; GNSS; TEC; ROTI; real time ionosphere; geomagnetic storms; GNSS; TEC; ROTI; real time
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kotulak, K.; Krankowski, A.; Froń, A.; Flisek, P.; Wang, N.; Li, Z.; Błaszkiewicz, L. Sub-Auroral and Mid-Latitude GNSS ROTI Performance during Solar Cycle 24 Geomagnetic Disturbed Periods: Towards Storm’s Early Sensing. Sensors 2021, 21, 4325. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134325

AMA Style

Kotulak K, Krankowski A, Froń A, Flisek P, Wang N, Li Z, Błaszkiewicz L. Sub-Auroral and Mid-Latitude GNSS ROTI Performance during Solar Cycle 24 Geomagnetic Disturbed Periods: Towards Storm’s Early Sensing. Sensors. 2021; 21(13):4325. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134325

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kotulak, Kacper, Andrzej Krankowski, Adam Froń, Paweł Flisek, Ningbo Wang, Zishen Li, and Leszek Błaszkiewicz. 2021. "Sub-Auroral and Mid-Latitude GNSS ROTI Performance during Solar Cycle 24 Geomagnetic Disturbed Periods: Towards Storm’s Early Sensing" Sensors 21, no. 13: 4325. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134325

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