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Article

Knowledge-Based Verification of Concatenative Programming Patterns Inspired by Natural Language for Resource-Constrained Embedded Devices

1
Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed.6, 90128 Palermo, Italy
2
Institute for High Performance Computing and Networking (ICAR), National Research Council (CNR), Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010107
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 19 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 26 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution of Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems)
We propose a methodology to verify applications developed following programming patterns inspired by natural language that interact with physical environments and run on resource-constrained interconnected devices. Natural language patterns allow for the reduction of intermediate abstraction layers to map physical domain concepts into executable code avoiding the recourse to ontologies, which would need to be shared, kept up to date, and synchronized across a set of devices. Moreover, the computational paradigm we use for effective distributed execution of symbolic code on resource-constrained devices encourages the adoption of such patterns. The methodology is supported by a rule-based system that permits runtime verification of Software Under Test (SUT) on board the target devices through automated oracle and test case generation. Moreover, verification extends from syntactic and semantic checks to the evaluation of the effects of SUT execution on target hardware. Additionally, by exploiting rules tying sensors and actuators to physical quantities, the effects of code execution on the physical environment can be verified. The system is also able to build test code to highlight software issues that may arise during repeated SUT execution on the target hardware. View Full-Text
Keywords: embedded systems; wireless sensor networks; internet of things; symbolic programming; distributed programming; concatenative languages; forth embedded systems; wireless sensor networks; internet of things; symbolic programming; distributed programming; concatenative languages; forth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaglio, S.; Lo Re, G.; Martorella, G.; Peri, D. Knowledge-Based Verification of Concatenative Programming Patterns Inspired by Natural Language for Resource-Constrained Embedded Devices. Sensors 2021, 21, 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010107

AMA Style

Gaglio S, Lo Re G, Martorella G, Peri D. Knowledge-Based Verification of Concatenative Programming Patterns Inspired by Natural Language for Resource-Constrained Embedded Devices. Sensors. 2021; 21(1):107. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaglio, Salvatore, Giuseppe Lo Re, Gloria Martorella, and Daniele Peri. 2021. "Knowledge-Based Verification of Concatenative Programming Patterns Inspired by Natural Language for Resource-Constrained Embedded Devices" Sensors 21, no. 1: 107. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010107

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