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Article

Modelling the Influence of Different Soot Types on the Radio-Frequency-Based Load Detection of Gasoline Particulate Filters

1
Bayreuth Engine Research Center (BERC), Department of Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
2
Combustion Engines and Emission Control Laboratory (CEEC), Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
3
Vitesco Technologies GmbH, 93055 Regensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2659; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092659
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 29 April 2020 / Accepted: 2 May 2020 / Published: 6 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are an appropriate means to meet today’s emission standards. As for diesel applications, GPFs can be monitored via differential pressure sensors or using a radio-frequency approach (RF sensor). Due to largely differing soot properties and engine operating modes of gasoline compared to diesel engines (e.g., the possibility of incomplete regenerations), the behavior of both sensor systems must be investigated in detail. For this purpose, extensive measurements on engine test benches are usually required. To simplify the sensor development, a simulation model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics® that not only allowed for calculating the loading and regeneration process of GPFs under different engine operating conditions but also determined the impact on both sensor systems. To simulate the regeneration behavior of gasoline soot accurately, an oxidation model was developed. To identify the influence of different engine operating points on the sensor behavior, various samples generated at an engine test bench were examined regarding their kinetic parameters using thermogravimetric analysis. Thus, this compared the accuracy of soot mass determination using the RF sensor with the differential pressure method. By simulating a typical driving condition with incomplete regenerations, the effects of the soot kinetics on sensor accuracy was demonstrated exemplarily. Thereby, the RF sensor showed an overall smaller mass determination error, as well as a lower dependence on the soot kinetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: gasoline particulate filter (GPF); radio frequency (RF); soot mass determination; finite element method (FEM); ash; diesel particulate filter (DPF) gasoline particulate filter (GPF); radio frequency (RF); soot mass determination; finite element method (FEM); ash; diesel particulate filter (DPF)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walter, S.; Schwanzer, P.; Hagen, G.; Haft, G.; Rabl, H.-P.; Dietrich, M.; Moos, R. Modelling the Influence of Different Soot Types on the Radio-Frequency-Based Load Detection of Gasoline Particulate Filters. Sensors 2020, 20, 2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092659

AMA Style

Walter S, Schwanzer P, Hagen G, Haft G, Rabl H-P, Dietrich M, Moos R. Modelling the Influence of Different Soot Types on the Radio-Frequency-Based Load Detection of Gasoline Particulate Filters. Sensors. 2020; 20(9):2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092659

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walter, Stefanie, Peter Schwanzer, Gunter Hagen, Gerhard Haft, Hans-Peter Rabl, Markus Dietrich, and Ralf Moos. 2020. "Modelling the Influence of Different Soot Types on the Radio-Frequency-Based Load Detection of Gasoline Particulate Filters" Sensors 20, no. 9: 2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092659

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