# A Strong Tracking Mixed-Degree Cubature Kalman Filter Method and Its Application in a Quadruped Robot

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Strong Tracking Mixed-Degree Cubature Kalman Filter (STMCKF)

#### 2.1. Initialization

#### 2.2. Predication

#### 2.3. Pseudo Observation Update

_{k}satisfies the following equations:

#### 2.4. State Mutation Test

#### 2.5. Calculate Multiple Fading Factors

#### 2.6. Recalculation

#### 2.7. Update

## 3. Forward Kinematics of Quadruped Robot

#### 3.1. Equation of State for Quadruped Robot

^{−4}. It can be known that the magnitude of coriolis acceleration is 10

^{−5}and the magnitude of centripetal acceleration is only 10

^{−7}, which is negligible in velocity calculation. The velocity upgrading differential equation of SINS can be simplified as Equation (35). Subsequently, the integral operation is performed using the Runge–Kutta method, so that the real time velocity variation can be obtained.

#### 3.2. Pseudo-Observation Equation of Quadruped Robot

#### 3.3. Multi-Sensor Fusion Structure Diagram

## 4. Numerical Experiments

## 5. Velocity Estimation Experiment of Quadruped Robot

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

## Appendix B

## References

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**Figure 3.**Connecting rod coordinate system of right front leg of quadruped robot [20].

**Figure 6.**Comparison of forward velocity estimation with three filters. (

**a**) Forward velocity estimation; (

**b**) RMSE of forward velocity.

**Figure 7.**Comparison of lateral velocity estimation with three filters. (

**a**) Lateral velocity estimation; (

**b**) RMSE of lateral velocity.

**Figure 9.**Screenshot of walking experiment of quadruped robot prototype. (

**a**) Robot is ready to start a new trot gait cycle; (

**b**) Robot raises the left front leg and the right hind leg on the diagonal; (

**c**) Robot chooses landing points according to state estimation result; (

**d**) Robot raises the right front leg and the left hind leg on the diagonal; (

**e**) Robot chooses landing points according to update state estimation result; (

**f**) Robot starts next cycle of trot gait.

**Figure 10.**Comparison of state estimation between EKF and STMCKF of a quadruped robot. (

**a**) Comparison of north position estimation between EKF and STMCKF; (

**b**) Comparison of east position estimation between EKF and STMCKF; (

**c**) Comparison of forward velocity estimation between EKF and STMCKF; (

**d**) Comparison of forward velocity estimation between EKF and STMCKF.

Joint i | Connecting Rod Length ${\mathit{l}}_{\mathit{i}}$ (mm) | Torsional Angle ${\mathit{\alpha}}_{\mathit{i}}$ (°) | Connecting Rod Distance ${\mathit{d}}_{\mathit{i}}$ (mm) | Connecting Rod Angle ${\mathit{\theta}}_{\mathit{i}}$ (°) |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 100 | 90 | 0 | ${\theta}_{1}$ |

2 | 315 | 0 | 0 | ${\theta}_{2}$ |

3 | 335 | 0 | 0 | ${\theta}_{3}$ |

4 | 340 | 0 | 0 | ${\theta}_{4}$ |

Algorithm | EKF | CKF | STMCKF |
---|---|---|---|

Running time (s) | 1.288 | 2.861 | 1.699 |

Increased (%) | 0 | 122.13 | 31.91 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Liu, J.; Wang, P.; Zha, F.; Guo, W.; Jiang, Z.; Sun, L.
A Strong Tracking Mixed-Degree Cubature Kalman Filter Method and Its Application in a Quadruped Robot. *Sensors* **2020**, *20*, 2251.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082251

**AMA Style**

Liu J, Wang P, Zha F, Guo W, Jiang Z, Sun L.
A Strong Tracking Mixed-Degree Cubature Kalman Filter Method and Its Application in a Quadruped Robot. *Sensors*. 2020; 20(8):2251.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082251

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Liu, Jikai, Pengfei Wang, Fusheng Zha, Wei Guo, Zhenyu Jiang, and Lining Sun.
2020. "A Strong Tracking Mixed-Degree Cubature Kalman Filter Method and Its Application in a Quadruped Robot" *Sensors* 20, no. 8: 2251.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082251